Pereira, William L.

Lake County Health Department Building

Added by jon buono, last update: March 6, 2012, 5:10 pm

Lake County Health Department Building
Lake County Health Department, source: "Built in USA since 1932," Museum of Modern Art Exhibition Catalog, 1944. , date: circa 1944
Location
2415 Dodge Ave
Waukegan, IL 60085
United States
42° 21' 7.9992" N, 87° 51' 47.4696" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Health (HLT)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):

Nominated in 2009 for local landmark designation; status unknown

History of Building/Site
Original Brief:

In Lake County in the early 1900s doctor W. H. Watterson contracted the disease and discovered that there were no facilities in the region to treat it. After his cure, Watterson organized the Lake County Tuberculosis Institute. By 1909, a sanitorium was located on 16 acres on Grand Avenue, east of Green Bay Road in Waukegan. „Lake Breeze Sanitorium? cared for 66 patients. Residents lived in cottages or tents and paid a monthly fee for housing and food.

This treatment of fresh air and a good diet was not always effective. By 1939, the death rate from tuberculosis in Lake County was still 38 persons per year. It was determined that a better facility was needed. The voters of Lake County, Illinois voted to erect a tuberculosis sanatorium for the county with tax revenue to be collected over a period of 10 years starting in the summer of 1939. Dr. Charles K. Petter of the staff of the Glen Lake Sanatorium, Oak Terrace, Minnesota, was appointed as medical director. Petter assumed his position in early 1939 and reportedly supervised the construction of the sanatorium. The site chosen was a 22-acre parcel on Belvidere Road in Waukegan, adjacent to today?s Belvidere Park.

The architects were William A. Ganster (1908-1988) and William L. Pereira (1909-1985), who spent months studying the treatment of patients with tuberculosis so as to improve the design of their building. As a result, the Lake County Tuberculosis Sanatorium was perfectly designed for ultimate functionality. Its southern orientation allowed for maximum sunlight exposure to enter the rooms and patients had access to balconies and terraces for fresh air. The northern end of the facility contained the administrative and medical portion of the complex.

The Lake County Tuberculosis Sanatorium was considered small in contrast with other institutions around the nation. The facility contained only 92 beds instead of the 200 to 300 that were found elsewhere. The size of the building, along with the orientation of the in-patient rooms, administrative offices, and out-patient rooms, allowed for all three areas to share a single set of stairs and elevator. Two separate buildings--the Doctors' Residence and the Nurses' Residence--were constructed on the grounds in a similar architectural style.

After the 1943 discovery of streptomycin, an antibiotic and the first cure for tuberculosis, most sanatoria closed and were demolished. The Lake County Tuberculosis Sanatorium eventually became obsolete and in 1974 was converted into a facility for the Lake County Health Department.

Dates: Commission / Completion:1938-1939
Architectural and other Designer(s): William A. Ganster and William L. Pereira. William A. Ganster, FAIA (1908-1988) had a long career in Waukegan, including a partnership with Henninghausen, and designed many buildings within the community. William L. Pereira (1909-1985) designed a handful of buildings in Chicago in the 1930s, such as the Esquire Theater and the remodeling of the Des Plaines Theater, before moving to Los Angeles around 1940. Both architects were 1930 graduates of the School of Architecture, University of Illinois. The Sanatorium is their only known collaboration.
Others associated with Building/Site:
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): replacement of window frames and glazing, date unknown
Current Use: vacated, following use as medical facility for Lake County Health Department
Current Condition: The exteriors of all three sanatorium buildings retain a high level of historic architectural integrity including the flat roofs and absence of additions, however the original single-pane steel windows have been replaced.
General Description:

The main building is a two-story (with basement), reinforced concrete structure with a rectangular footprint. The building was oriented with southern exposures for all of the patient rooms, which accomodated 90 beds. The building's original exterior was defined by steel frame windows with frosted glass transoms and transparent fixed and ventilated panels. The installation was conceived to modulate light and natural air for patient comfort. Each room was also provided with its own terrace, and allowed patient beds to be rolled outdoors. The complex's north wing includes the original main entrance, administrative offices, and the original out-patients' clinic. Two adjoining smaller structures housed the nurses (the building to the east) and the doctor (the building to the west).

The exteriors of all three sanatorium buildings are chjaracterized by flat roofs, absence of ornamentation, and a strong horizontal composition reinforced by ribbon-like windows and railings of the patients' quarters. The linear arrangement of the buildings was optimized for southern exposure and views of the site's spacious wooded and grassy slope.

Construction Period:

1938-1939

Original Physical Context:
Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:
Social:
Cultural & Aesthetic:
The building's innovative design was recognized through publication in The Architectural Forum (1940) and the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition "Built in USA since 1932" (1944) as curated by Elizabeth Mock.
Historical:

Beginning in the 1880s, tuberculosis patients were treated in sanatoria or specialized hospitals. Such practice lessened exposure to the contagion, while promoting healthy diet and ample fresh air, which at the time were the extent of successful treatment. As such, the Sanatorium is significant for its functional design, with a dominant southern orientation to allow maximum sunlight exposure to enter the rooms. Patients had easy access to fresh air with accessibility to balconies and terraces.

General Assessment:
Documentation
Text references:

“Lake County Tuberculosis Sanatorium,” George Nelson [Associate editor]: The Architectural Forum. Philadelphia: Time, Inc. [Volume 73, number 3, September 1940].

"Tuberculosis Sanitarium" accessed 15 March 2011.

"New Sanatorium Buildings," Diseases of the Chest. El Paso, Texas: American College of Chest Physicians. [Volume IV, number 2, February 1938].

"Lake County Tuberculosis Sanatorium," Ty Rohrer: City of Waukegan Landmark Nomination Form October 2005.

Authoring
Recorder/Date: Jon Buono / March 2011
Additional Images
Lake County Health Department Building
Lake County Health Department, Source: "Built in USA since 1932," Museum of Modern Art Exhibition Catalog, 1944. , date: circa 1944
Lake County Health Department Building
Lake County Health Department, Source: "Built in USA since 1932," Museum of Modern Art Exhibition Catalog, 1944. , date: circa 1944
Lake County Health Department Building
Lake County Health Department, Source: "Built in USA since 1932," Museum of Modern Art Exhibition Catalog, 1944. , date: circa 1944

University of California Geisel Library

Added by Solarlab, last update: October 14, 2011, 10:46 pm

University of California Geisel Library
University of California Geisel Library, source: http://libraries.ucsd.edu/_images/Main/geisel-building-1.jpg, date: February 3, 2011
Location
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0401
United States
32° 52' 38.4708" N, 117° 13' 47.0964" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Education (EDC)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):

none

History of Building/Site
Original Brief:

The Geisel Library was to be the Central library of the university, housing the majority of UCSD’s collections as well as the central administration offices and processing departments of the library system. It was to serve graduate students enrolled in nonscience programs and satisfy the library needs of undergraduate students.

Dates: Commission / Completion:In 1957, William Pereira & Associates was commissioned to begin site selection studies in San Diego County. In June 1965, Pereira’s firm was asked to design the main library for the UCSD campus. On July 1, 1968, ground was broken for the new library. The building was completed in 1970. Partial occupancy was reached by June of that year when the books were moved in. The first books were moved into the building on June 29, 1970. By September 1970, the library was at full occupancy.
Architectural and other Designer(s): Executive Architect: William L. Pereira Associates; Project Architect: Robert A. Throburn
Others associated with Building/Site: Consultant: Keyes D. Metcalf; General Contractors: Nielsen Construction Company with Swinerton & Walberg, joint venturers.
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): In 1993, The Central Library expansion was completed by architects Gunnar Birkerts & Associates, adding 151,413 square feet to the existing 121,839 square feet . The library was rededicated. Birkerts called the project a deepening and extending of the existing structure. UCSD is one of the leading research universities in the country and use of the original library had exceeded its capacity. Audrey Geisel, wife of Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss), donated $10 million. In 1995, the University Library was renamed The Geisel Library in honor of Audrey and Theodore Geisel. An addition was completed in December 1991, adding 151,413 usable square feet to the existing 121,839 square feet. Designed by Gunnar Birkerts & Associates
Current Use: Library and administrative offices. While originally intended to be used primarily by graduate students, it is now mostly being used by undergraduate students. This is due to the fact that the Geisel library was the first of an intended campus master plan that has yet to see completion.
Current Condition: During 1992, the building was updated and the tower was restored close to Pereira’s original design. This floor plan created more reading room for students. The 1992 renovations included installing a new air conditioning system, updating the two existing elevators and adding a third. The stacks also underwent seismic retrofitting.
General Description:

The library is a concrete and glass structure in the Brutalist style. It is comprised of 8 levels, with the center tower reaching 110 feet in height. The general library collection is contained in the five-level building raised above a two-level platform. The building is supported by sixteen external concrete trusses, which were originally designed to be inside, but were moved outside in order to increase useable space. Like a ziggurat temple, the floors are stepped.

Of the eight levels, the lowest level is subterranean and levels two and three create the dramatic separation between the ground plane and the elevated sphere. Level six, with the most reader stations, is the widest, with level four equaling level eight and level five equaling level seven. The center tower is where all the books are stores, leaving the surrounding windows open to reading space.

Construction Period:

1968-70

Original Physical Context:

The library sits in the epicenter of the USCD’s 1000 acre campus. The library was meant to a visually striking central part of a larger cluster of buildings. The other buildings were never completed, so the building is isolated, starkly contrasted against the open space surrounding it.

Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:

The sixteen, reinforced concrete beams were formed using six-inch foam boards as opposed to plywood. In order to simplify the process and keep costs down, the corners were treated with chamfers. The 360 degree windows are floor to ceiling, glass and metal frame.

Social:

The Geisel Library was intended to be the cultural and social focal point of the University. The architects originally wanted it to serve as the gateway connecting the University with the surrounding community. The Forum level is an open plaza with movable plants and benches, intended for multiple uses. It was designed in a way to create either large or intimate outdoor gatherings, but at the same time, not interfering with the interior use of the library.

Cultural & Aesthetic:
The Geisel Library building has become an icon for UC San Diego. Pereira called the building “powerful and permanent hands that are holding aloft knowledge itself.” Because of the building’s striking exterior, it has appeared in some sci-fi films and television shows. Film: 1991 - Exterior of a research lab in Killer Tomatoes Strike Back. 2003 - Funky Monkey - Filmed at Geisel. 2011- California State of Mind is a documentary about former Governor Edmund "Pat" Brown. TV: 1981-1988 Simon & Simon - Exterior was featured in the introduction to series, and some filming was done inside as well. 1998 - Push - series showed Geisel Library in the credits. The library was also visible in the background in episodes of Veronica Mars and John from Cincinnati.
Historical:

Although the library was considered a symbolic center of the University, its visual impact was quickly overshadowed by several issues related to functionality and use. The interior space that resulted from the building form was inefficient when it came to book storage and user circulation. In addition to that, the clear glass surrounding the entire structure didn’t protect the interior from ultraviolet rays and later had to be tinted. Public opinion varied in all directions, some calling it impractical, others finding it inspirational.

General Assessment:
Documentation
Text references:

Banham , Reyner. AR 1955 December ? Essay: The New Brutalism| Archive | Architectural Review. Web. 03 Feb. 2011.
Britton, James. Evaluation: Lantern-like library held aloft on concrete fingers {University of California at San Diego}. 66 1977: 30-5. 02 Feb 2011.
Pereira & Associates, William L. Original Report. Central Library, University of California at San Diego. Print. Aug. 1967.
Steele, James. William Pereira. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, Architectural Guild, 2002. Print.
Vitta, Maurizio. "Un Perimetro Di Cristallo per L'Università Di San Diego." Arca 37 (1990): 42-47. Web. 31 Jan. 2011.
Los Angeles Times (pre-1997 Fulltext) 26 Sep. 1995,Los Angeles Times, ProQuest. Web. 2 Feb. 2011.
Los Angeles Times (pre-1997 Fulltext) 5 Mar. 1992, Los Angeles Times, ProQuest. Web. 2 Feb. 2011. http://libraries.ucsd.edu/about/geisel-building.html

Authoring
Recorder/Date: Samantha Labrie / February 3, 2011

Transamerica Pyramid

Added by admin, last update: August 17, 2012, 2:07 pm

Transamerica Pyramid
Location
600 Montgomery Street
San Francisco, CA
United States
37° 47' 42.5652" N, 122° 24' 9.8352" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Commercial (COM)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
History of Building/Site
Original Brief:
Dates: Commission / Completion:Commission unknown, completion 1972(e).
Architectural and other Designer(s): William Pereira & Associates, architect Tom Galli, landscape architect for adjacent Redwood Park
Others associated with Building/Site:
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): Renovation to restaurant
Current Use: Office building and restaurant.
Current Condition: Good
General Description:
Construction Period:
Original Physical Context:
Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:
Social:
Cultural & Aesthetic:
Historical:
General Assessment:
Extremely controversial when built, the Transamerica Pyramid has become a San Francisco landmark and one of the country's most recognizable skyscrapers. The design is counterintuitive from a practical and financial standpoint, since the most desirable upper floors have the least area. Yet the scheme works well for a building dominated by a single tenant and illustrates the ability of modern structures to create strong corporate identities for their owners. The pyramid form was chosen as a way to maximize building height under planning regulations, and as a strategy to allow more light to reach the street level where the building rests on concrete clad steel piers forming a loggia between the sidewalk and lobby. Below the aluminum sheathed point, cladding panels of glass and precast concrete complete the exterior and demonstrate the ascendancy of exposed concrete in modern building construction by the early 1970s.
Documentation
Text references:
Authoring
Recorder/Date: DOCOMOMO US Northern California Chapter, June 1998
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