Sert, Josep Luis

Holyoke Center, Harvard University

Added by YRen, last update: August 17, 2012, 1:53 pm

Holyoke Center, Harvard University
Aerial view, source: Harvard University, date: 1965
Location
Holyoke Center
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
42° 22' 21.4896" N, 71° 7' 6.8808" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Administration (ADM)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
History of Building/Site
Original Brief:
Dates: Commission / Completion:1958/1966
Architectural and other Designer(s): Sert, Jackson and Gourley, Joseph Zalewski and John E. Nickolas, Associates Landscape/garden designers: Sasaki, Walker and Associates
Others associated with Building/Site: Consulting engineers: Cleverdon, Varney and Pike Building contractors: George A. Fuller Co. Acoustic Engineers: Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Soil Mechanics Consultant: Arthur Casagrande Specifications: Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger, Inc.
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): 1979-1985, Concrete Fin Replacement 1980-1981, Curtain Wall Improvement 1983, 6th and 8th Floor Renovation 1984-1985, 3rd and 5th Floor Renovation 1994-1996, UHS Renovation 1999-2000, Arcade Improvements
Current Use: Holyoke Center is the main administration building of Harvard University. It includes underground parking, the arcade, shops, and a bank at street level, university offices above, and a fully equipped infirmary, and University Health Services.
Current Condition: Good
General Description:

Holyoke Center, which occupies a full city block in the heart of Harvard Square, is a ten-story, 360,000 square foot facility originally designed by José Luis Sert in 1960. The main plan of the concrete structure is H-shaped, with the north wing along Massachusetts Avenue and south wing along Mt. Auburn Street. The central connecting portion sets back from both Dunster Street and Holyoke Street and is approximately the same width as the two wings. The structural height is 133 feet and the total height is 167 feet.

Holyoke Center is the main administration building of Harvard University. At street level, a pedestrian arcade, occupying two stories in height, runs through the block. Originally, the arcade was no more than a link connecting the Harvard Yard and the river houses and the main entrance to the offices. Then in 1993, as part of “The Shops by Harvard Yard” project, ten kiosks along the arcade were opened after renovation. In 1999, two glass gates on each side were installed to block out the wind and for security reasons. Now it is an active area because it is the main entrance to the offices, several shops, and restaurants. On the north end of the site there is a branch bank and on the south end there are a heath center reception and a library. The above floors of the building were occupied by university administration offices and University Health Services including a fully-equipped infirmary. There is a parking garage underground.

The facades show the architect’s ideas of modernism. The random pattern of the windows and sandwich panels represent the variations inside. The glass of the windows is held by metal frames. Across each window, on three sides (except the north side where the window bars are brick red) of the building, there are red, orange, and yellow bars. Large sheets of windows are designed to “frame the view”. The windows do not open.

Construction Period:

The construction of Holyoke Center had four phases. Phase 1 completed in 1961. The south half of the H-shaped building was built, and University’s Health Services moved into the completed wing. The building was expanded on the east side at street level in the Phase 2 in 1963. In 1966, the north wing was built in Phase 3. The majority of the construction completed. In the same year, in Phase 4, a bank was built on the north end of the site.

Original Physical Context:

Holyoke Center was designed by José Luis Sert in the 1950’s as an administration building of Harvard University. Mr. Sert was a world class architect, and also a former dean of Graduate School of Design in Harvard University. It was the first high rise building in Harvard University. The design gave rise to much controversy. The building was thought to be too high, too large, and showed no respect to the historic area in which it was located. The site was surrounded by historic brick buildings wit Georgian roofs, which were no more than two stories. The building was called “grey elephant” due to its Brutalist reinforced concrete facades.

Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:

Holyoke Center was the only high rise cast-in-place concrete building in Harvard University at that time. The innovation with a new type of surface was an architectural experiment. However, the concrete started to crumble 15 years after its completion. The configurations of the facades were also advanced for its time. Alternated with clear glass, the translucent sandwich panels allow much sunshine into the interior spaces. However, the windows could not open and the “three-pipe” system contributed to the serious energy costs issue.

Social:
Cultural & Aesthetic:
It was the first high rise building in that area. It was the beginning of modern architecture activity of Harvard University. After its construction, Harvard Science Center and Peabody Terrace were built.
Historical:
General Assessment:
The value of this building is considered as a symbol of modern architecture activity in Harvard University in the 1960’s. Its innovative use of new materials and new structure were very advanced for the time. Although the restorations and improvements never stop, it is thought to be a successful architectural experiment.
Documentation
Text references:

Knight, R. F. (1966). The Holyoke Center: a few comments. Connection. 4-9.
Holyoke Center at Harvard University. (1962). Architectural Record. 132-137.
Holyoke Center, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965; architects: Sert, Jackson & Associates. (1982). Process: Architecture. (34), 108.
Josep M. Rovira, Sert half a century of architecture: 1928-1979, complete work, [Barcelona] : Fundacio? Joan Miro?, c2005, pp247-255.
Sofia Cheviakoff, Alberto Duarte, Josep Llui?s Sert / [editor Sofia Cheviakoff], Gloucester, Mass, [Great Britain]: Rockport, 2003, pp8.
Anrea O. Dean, Evaluation: 'Gray elephant' in Harvard Square: Holyoke Center, most successful of the university's first-generation highrises, AIA Journal 1979 Jan., v.68, n.1, p.48-51.
http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=218223, CHRISTOPHER J. GEORGES, Holyoke Center Crumbles, The Harvard Crimson Online Edition, November 2, 1983.

Authoring
Recorder/Date: Yuan Ren / March 5th, 2009
Additional Images
Holyoke Center, Harvard University
North facade, Source: Sert, Jackson & Associates. (1982). Process: Architecture. (34), 109 , date: 1966

Peabody Terrace

Added by admin, last update: August 17, 2012, 2:00 pm

Peabody Terrace
Location
1-34 Peabody Terrace
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
42° 22' 1.7508" N, 71° 6' 50.6628" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Residential (RES)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
History of Building/Site
Original Brief:
Dates: Commission / Completion:Commission 1960(c); completion 1964(e)
Architectural and other Designer(s): Josep Lluis Sert of Sert Jackson & Gourley
Others associated with Building/Site: Leland Cott, FAIA of Bruner/Cott and Associates, renovation architects
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s):
Current Use: Harvard University Graduate Student Housing.
Current Condition: Intact and well maintained.
General Description:

An arrangement of three 22-storey concrete towers linked to mid- and low-rise apartment blocks with full height glazing at balconies and a central pedestrian plaza. It features exposed monolithic concrete construction. The massing is rectilinear with blocks that step down toward the Charles River.

Construction Period:

Monolithic concrete core and exterior walls with balconies. Brightly painted metal ventilation panels and movable sunshades.

Original Physical Context:

Riverside, high-density urban institutional and residential site.

Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:

A pioneering application of reinforced concrete for residential use and elevator-based circulation diagram to private units with natural light and ventilation from opposite orientations.

Social:

A dense residential community within a consciously demarcated site associated with a single institution. Peabody Terrace symbolized the mobility and the diversity of the Post war University population. The high turnover and academic culture of the residents emphasized their difference from the permanent occupants on the surrounding streets. The Modern Style further expressed the difference between the two populations.

Cultural & Aesthetic:
Sert produced two other high-rise complexes in the Boston area and a number of less conspicuous buildings of lesser scales. They introduced an early Brutalist aesthetic with a strong philosophical and visual link to Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation and to many of his proportional and planning concepts. The building is highly admired by architects and generally resented by the owner and its neighbors.
Historical:

Internationally, Sert’s reputation is centered on his work associated with Joan Míro and Galerie Maeght. In the United States, the institutional buildings for Harvard and Boston University are unique examples of work at a large scale that adhere closely to Le Corbusier’s planning and design concepts. Locally, these buildings are of major significance due to their placement along the riverfront skyline and in the urban center of Harvard Square. Peabody Terrace is the only high-rise housing use in Sert’s oeuvre in such a visible setting. Its appearance remains as radical in 2004 as it was when it was built. The complex is the most iconic of Sert’s large buildings.

General Assessment:
Harvard University was the North American center for the development and promulgation of Le Corbusier’s ideas. Sert’s buildings and teaching were the most extensive and most influential factors in this movement of Modern Architecture during the CIAM era in the generation following Gropius’s and Aalto’s student housing in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The buildings remain unique in their organization and form in the United States and abroad.
Documentation
Text references:

José Luis Sert: 1901-1983. Josep M. Rovira. Electa: Milan, 2000.
Progressive Architecture. “Yesterday’s Paradigm, Today’s Problem.” June 1994.
PROCESS: Architecture. “Josep Lluis Sert: His Work and Ways.” December 1982, Edition 34.
José Luis Sert: Architecture, City Planning, Urban Design. Knud Bastlund. Praeger: New York, 1967.

Authoring
Recorder/Date: Henry Moss, AIA, Leland Cott, FAIA; 19/7/04
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