Smith, Hamilton P.

Atlanta Fulton County Central Library

Added by jon buono, last update: July 16, 2016, 4:21 pm

Atlanta Fulton County Central Library
Front elevation viewed from Forsyth Street (2011 Jon Buono)
Location
One Margaret Mitchell Square
Atlanta, GA 30303
United States
33° 45' 27.7956" N, 84° 23' 18.3336" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Education (EDC)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):

None

History of Building/Site
Original Brief:

The commission for the building arguably began with the strained conditions of Atlanta’s library system in the 1960s. As with many US metropolitan areas, rapid growth following WWII surpassed the service or function of municipal services which remained largely unimproved since before the 1940s. In January 1968, Carlton Rochell assumed the post of Atlanta Library Director. Rochell, a native of Tennessee, became a trailblazer in the advancement of library systems across the American South. Prior to Atlanta, he served 5 years in Anniston, Alabama where he successfully merged and desegregated the city and county systems.

Rochell’s hiring had followed a 1964 assessment of the Atlanta system by Joseph Wheeler, an authority on public library operations. Wheeler had identified many deficiencies in services as compared to similar municipalities. Rochell carried these findings further and suggested an inventory gap of approximately half a million volumes and advocated for establishing both a children’s program and an audio/visual collection. Momentum gained for an update to the Atlanta library system and modernization of the central repository. In anticipation of expansion, Library Board successfully purchased the remaining parcels on it’s city block with the intent to increase the present facility from 80,000SF to 200,000 SF.

Records suggest that Rochell was attuned to the discourse of modern architecture in the 1960s. Through his leadership the Library Board solicited the interest of multiple architects in New York, including Paul Rudolph, but ultimately selected Breuer in 1969. The commission was to plan and design an entirely new building for 1,000 users and 1 million volumes, based on an ambitious 275-page program.

It should be noted that this was not Breuer’s first contact with the city of Atlanta. In 1946, shortly after his emigration to the United States from Germany, Breuer was a participant in a design competition for a “Realistic House in Georgia” sponsored by Rich’s Department Store and the magazine “Progressive Architecture”. Seven years later, he visited the city as a keynote speaker for a modern design lecture series, created by the Atlanta Vassar Club and honoring his design of the college’s Ferry House dormitory.

Despite the 1969 selection did not advance due to local indecision on whether the new facility should be constructed at the current library site or a new site. At some point later in 1970, Breuer’s office was apparently released to prepare a schematic design for redevelopment of the existing library site. The submission, made March 1971, established the fundamental concepts for the library as ultimately built. The proposal accompanied an estimate of $15.2 million and a 2 – ½ year construction duration. The Library Board quickly presented the design concept to the public and it was warmly received by popular columnist Celestine Sibley in an Atlanta Journal Constitution Magazine article the following month.

Later in 1971, Atlanta businessman and philanthropist Robert Woodruff donated to the city a 75,000 SF parcel of properties he had purchased on Peachtree Street between Auburn and Edgewood Avenues. This prospect lead to a requested submission for an alternative schematic design (referred to as the Five Points site) and submitted by Breuer’s office (in collaboration with local architects Stevens & Wilkinson) in December 1971. The course of official decisions that followed submission of the two proposals is currently unknown, but the project effectively stalled. The Woodruff land donation did proceed to be developed as Central City Park (current day Woodruff Park), opening in 1973.

A significant project delay was also due to a dispute between the autonomous Library Board and city government over the bond referendum. Although a public vote was initially scheduled for the spring of 1972, successful passage for the $18.9 million library improvement bond was delayed until 1975. Breuer’s contract for construction design services lingered through the city’s procurement process until May of 1976. Breuer’s design development submission was ultimately submitted in July.

Breuer had initially undertaken the project in collaboration with design partner Hamilton Smith. Smith was one of Breuer’s first partners, having gained the position in 1964 during his leadership of the Whitney Museum project. The timing of the Atlanta project delays coincided with Breuer’s declining health and substantial retirement from practice in 1976. Although Breuer was kept abreast of all his ongoing projects, Smith’s responsibility in executing the Atlanta library design concept cannot be underestimated.

Although Atlanta-based Stevens and Wilkinson took responsibility for the construction documents, Breuer’s office remained closely involved in the development of project details, most notably leading the design for the custom pre-cast concrete façade panels. Following commence of construction, members of Breuer’s office made routine visits to Atlanta to monitor the activity and progress on site.

Due to his health, Breuer was unable to attend the building’s dedication ceremony on May 25, 1980, and he died a year later on July 1, 1981 at the age of 81.

Dates: Commission / Completion:1971: Concept designs for Forsyth Street and alternate Peachtree Street sites; 1976: Schematic Design and Design Development for Forsyth Street site; 1977: Construction begins October; 1980: Completion in May
Architectural and other Designer(s): Marcel Breuer and Hamilton Smith with Associates Carl Stein and Frank Richlan, Architects; Stevens and Wilkinson, Associate Architect and Consulting Engineers; Peter George Associates Inc., Acoustical Engineer; Donald Bliss, Lighting Designer; Original Movable Furnishings, HOK/Jenkins-Fleming, Inc.
Others associated with Building/Site: Carlton Rochell, Library Director 1968-1976; Ella G. Yates, Library Director 1976-1986; George Hyman Construction Company and Ozanne Company, General Contractors
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): 1990: Installation of "Wisdom Bridge" sculpture (Richard Hunt, artist) at entrance plaza. mid-1990s: Closure of indoor cafe and outdoor seating terrace (entrance on Carnegie Way). dates-unknown: Closures of ground floor gift shop (designed by Breuer's Office), "Children's Entrance" on Williams Street, and drive-through book service. 2002: Interior renovation, installation of new carpet and paint finishes, repairs to entrance plaza waterproofing, repair of water damage to sub-grade auditorium, modification of entrance plaza grading and handrails for ADA access.
Current Use: Central Library & Library System Headquarters
Current Condition: Good
General Description:

The Atlanta Fulton County Central Library is the main library and central headquarters of a combined city-county library system. The building occupies an entire urban block within downtown Atlanta, adjacent to the Fairlie Poplar Historic District. . The library occupies a sloping site and has a terraced pedestrian entrance on its east elevation at Forsyth Street with vehicular service entrance on Fairlie Street. The rectangular building includes 10 stories, two of which are below grade.

The building mirrors that of grand civic libraries in Boston and Paris in its organization according to a "piano nobile". The open ground floor was originally programmed for circulation and general customer services, while the main reading rooms exist above the street level entrance and are accessed by a side northern staircase. Once ascended, occupants arrive at an expansive three-level volume of reading levels and book stacks, which are visually and vertically connected via a central monumental staircase.

Currently, the building retains the majority of its original programmatic layout, including: Lower level- Children’s Department, Art Gallery, Auditorium; First floor- Circulation & Customer Service; Second through Fourth floors- Book Stacks and Reading Rooms; Fifth floor- Special Collections, Offices, and Exterior Terrace; and Sixth through Eight Floors- Administration and Central Repository.

The library was conceived at a period in facility design which prioritized four factors: storage capacity for volumes ranging in the millions, publicly-accessible stacks, extensive climatic control systems, and restrictive lighting criteria to minimize UV damage to collections. The building expresses these design factors in it’s three-level storage facility, high-bay mechanical loft, and the controlled use of natural lighting.

The building’s division of levels is revealed at the exterior through a pattern of large-scale concrete façade panels which span the 15-foot floor heights. The irregularity of the individual floor plates is also expressed through setbacks and cantilevers which alternate at each elevation. The resulting geometric massing is monumental, and yet responsive to the pedestrian-scale within the dense urban site.

The expansive building interior was achieved by a robust structural system allowing for large unobstructed floor plates. The interior, and in particular the multi-level reading room, is animated by the introduction of natural light at strategic locations. A wide multi-story window at the second and third floor levels is located on the east exposure. Light from this elevation intersects illumination from four circular skylights, directly above the monumental staircase, which provide light from the upper roof terrace.

Construction Period:

Construction of the 245,000 SF library was executed by Washington D.C.-based George Hyman Construction Company (founded 1906) and the Ozanne Company – one of the oldest African-American owned construction companies in the country. The construction contract was notably completed ahead of schedule and under budget. These positive conditions allowed for immediate construction of the seventh and eight floor levels, which were originally engineered for erection in a later phase.

In the early months of 1977, the Atlanta’s existing 1902 library building and its 1950 addition were emptied of their collections. Demolition of those buildings and site preparation began in March. Sitework included extensive excavation to accommodate lower level parking, a sub-grade 300-seat theater, and structural footings to accommodate the substantial steel structural system.

Breuer’s office had worked in partnership with local Atlanta Firm Stevens and Wilkinson to produce both the architectural and engineering construction documents for the project, however the structural engineer of record has not been identified through research to date. Breuer’s office maintained responsibility for the majority of visible interior details in the project including custom millwork, handrails, hardware, wall finishes, and furniture - most notably for the children’s reading room. Notable building innovations included a computerized catalog system, automated compact shelving, AV listening booths, and a sub-level theater.

The building opening and dedication occurred on May 25, 1980, presided by Atlanta mayor Maynard Jackson; Mary Lu Mitchell, Chairman of Library Board of Trustees; and Ella G. Yates, who assumed the Library Director position in 1976.

Original Physical Context:

The site of the the Atlanta Fulton County Central Library is located within the northeast quadrant of the 10-acre Fairlie Poplar Historic District. As defined by the National Register of Historic Places, the district represents Atlanta's historic central business district and includes the largest concentration of commercial and office buildings in Atlanta from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Individually, the buildings represent some of the city's finest late Victorian and early 20th-century commercial buildings, and range from storefront commercial buildings to skyscrapers.

The site of the current library was also the site of the city’s 1902 library building, designed by New York architects Ackerman and Ross, and the donation of American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. For the next sixty years, the site continued as the center of operations for a growing municipal library system, including an addition constructed in 1950 and multiple renovation campaigns. The determination to replace the existing facility in 1969, prompted preservation interests for the original 1902 building. In response to an ad-hoc committee of concerned citizens including modern architect Joseph Amisano, city historian Franklin Garrett, and Secretary of State Ben Fortson, the exterior façade of white Georgia marble columns, arches, and frieze were carefully dismantled and committed to storage for future use. The materials were eventually re-erected as a free-standing architectural monument in advance of the the 1996 Olympics. Referred to as the “Carnegie Education Pavilion”, the monument is located in Hardy Ivy Park and was designed by architect Henri Jova.

Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:

The Atlanta Fulton County Central Library displays a degree of structural sophistication and innovation common to work throughout Breuer’s career. Both the scale and flexibility of the building layout are attributed to a steel structural system which provides the 30’ by 45’ primary column bays. The system was additionally engineered for 15-foot floor to floor spans of the public floor levels.

By the 1960s, Breuer was internationally regarded as a pioneer in the use of concrete construction. Within the course of Breuer’s career, the Atlanta project is particularly significant for its novel use of a pre-cast concrete façade. Although the use of exterior stone veneer was a common treatment among Breuer’s civic designs, multiple conditions in the library project prompted a uniquely engineered exterior system. Foremost, the precast panels yielded a far more structurally efficient assembly and eliminated the need of back-up walls to anchor masonry veneer. But additional innovations and economies were achieved through advanced manufacturing techniques at an off-site production facility. Sizes for the reinforced panels were maximized so that the exterior composition of panels would directly reflect the geometric arrangement of floor levels. Pre-casting also allowed production of complex, three-dimensional structural shapes which were not feasible in stone. Notably the many cubic angles of the exterior were manufactured as individual units to eliminate the presence of corner joints. Compound molds were also used to achieve the continuous splayed jambs throughout the building’s large scale windows. Following completion, the project received a special recognition from the American Prestressed Concrete Institute.

Breuer’s embrace of the material carried with it a sensitivity to the immediate perception of it’s surface. As quoted in a 1973 publication, the architect stated “the greatest esthetic design potential in concrete is found through interrupting the plane in such a way that sunlight and shadow will enhance its form, while through changing exposure a building will appear differently at various moments of the day.” In Atlanta, the scale of the façade panels was softened through the texture of a surface treatment. The panel formwork was designed with a diagonal pattern of narrow ribs across each exterior plane. After being released from the forms, the hardened concrete ribs were meticulously bush-hammered by hand to achieve the rough, irregular surface which provides such visual contrast to the scale and regularity of the panel geometry.

Social:
Cultural & Aesthetic:
The Atlanta Fulton County Central Library is notable not only as the most significant project of Breuer’s late career, but also as an evolution in his twenty-year exploration of the library building typology. Throughout those years, Breuer produced designs for six library projects. His experimentation with the programme was first realized in the design for the public library in Grosse Pointe, Michigan (1951-52). In that project and others to follow throughout the 1960s (Hunter College-1960, St. John’s University-1966) his design approach was defined by relatively simple schemes of rectangular forms. The exterior appearances, while suitably scaled for their sites, belied complex and expressive structural systems devised to provide expansive reading rooms with minimal intrusion of columns. The projects were also noted for their experimentation in modulating natural light with large screening systems, clerestories, and skylights. The Atlanta project – the largest among Breuer’s libraries – was a bold departure from the low-slung, box-like compositions that defined his earlier projects. Breuer and his team’s attention to the volumetric experience of a reading room however, remained constant. The requisite scale of the Atlanta project prompted a complex and decisively urban composition of circulation and secondary spaces which sets it apart from the other work in Breuer portfolio. The refinement of the building programme, along with the resulting composition, may be regarded as a unique resolution of his library designs with the urban form-making pioneered in the Whitney Museum (1966). And because the building occupies a full city block versus the Whitney’s corner site, the sculptural concepts could be more fully realized.
Historical:

The commission and design of the Atlanta Fulton County Central Library coincided with a national focus on the status of American libraries. The National Advisory Commission on Libraries (NACL), appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966, was charged with examining libraries nationwide and determining the role of federal support for the future. It was recommended that a National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) be established for the purpose of long-range planning. This commission was created in 1970 with the goal to "eventually provide every individual in the United States with equal opportunity of access to that part of the total information resource which will satisfy the individual’s educational, working, cultural and leisure-time needs and interests, regardless of the individual’s location, social or physical condition of level of intellectual achievement."

General Assessment:
Documentation
Text references:

"100 Years of Library Service." 100 Years of Library Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 July 2016. .
"Look Back ... to a Change of Service at Anniston Airport, 1991." The Anniston Star. N.p., 31 Mar. 1991. Web. 13 July 2016. .
"Atlanta–Fulton Public Library System." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 13 July 2016. .
"Biographical History." Marcel Breuer Papers. Syracuse University Libraries, n.d. Web. 12 July 2016. .
Garrett, Franklin Miller. Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events. Athens: U of Georgia, 2011. Print.
Hyman, Isabelle, and Marcel Breuer. Marcel Breuer, Architect: The Career and the Buildings. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2001. Print.
Lerner, Jonathan. "Atlanta’s Urge for a Trendy New Central Library May Mean That Time Is up for Marcel Breuer’s Final Building." Metropolis Feb. 2009: n. pag. Print.
United States. National Park Service. "Fairlie--Poplar Historic District--Atlanta: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary." National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 13 July 2016. .

Authoring
Recorder/Date: Jon Buono, Associate AIA / July 2016
Additional Images
Atlanta Fulton County Central Library
South elevation (1980 Stevens and Wilkinson)
Atlanta Fulton County Central Library
Detail of north corner at entrance plaza (1980 Stevens and Wilkinson)
Atlanta Fulton County Central Library
Interior view of monumental staircase (1980 Stevens and Wilkinson)
Atlanta Fulton County Central Library
Detail of bush-hammered finish on pre-cast concrete facade panels (2011 Jon Buono)

Met Breuer formerly the Whitney Museum of American Art

Added by Lindsey Schweinberg, last update: March 16, 2016, 6:29 pm

Met Breuer formerly the Whitney Museum of American Art
Location
945 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10021
United States
40° 46' 24.0348" N, 73° 57' 48.9528" W
Identity of Building / Site
Primary classification: Recreation (REC)
Secondary classification:
Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
History of Building/Site
Original Brief:

Design brief: According to Marcel Breuer, there was no time to decide upon the building’s design ahead of his selection. (New York Times, “Whitney Museum Finds a New Home” June 18, 1963.)
 The initial program requirements included:  3991sf of service and work space; 29,817 sf of gallery and exhibition space; 2,926 sf of office space, 1,050 sf of library space; 1,584 sf of lounges and meeting rooms, 950sf of supply closet and coat check space; 1,500 sf of lobby space.  The building committee consulted Philip Johnson on building costs.  He confirmed that $50 per sf was reasonable and the total cost was estimated at $1,598,100.  The finished building had a gross floor area of 82,000 sf; net gallery area 26,700 sf; sculpture court 3,100 sf, storage area 21,500 sf, office space 12,200 sf.

Dates: Commission / Completion:commission or competition date: June 5, 1963 (e), start of site work: October 20, 1964. completion/inauguration: September 28, 1966.
Architectural and other Designer(s): Architect(s): Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith, Michael Irving, consulting architect Consulting engineer(s): Paul Weidlinger, structural engineer,  Werner, Jensen & Kurst, mechanical engineers, (Stanley & McLandless initially) Edison Price, lighting consultants Building contractor(s): HRH Construction Company
Others associated with Building/Site:
Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): Event(s):Whitney Biennial (a showcase for emerging artists) Period: The Biennial has been held at the museum every two years since the late 1960’s. Type of change: renovation: Lobby renovation. Renovation and expansion of the museum into neighboring buildings. Date(s): Lobby: 1994. Expansion: circa 1994-1998.  33 East 74th Street purchased in 1994 for $3.4 million.  Gluckman hired in 1994 to study expansion.  Work completed in March 1998. circumstances/reasons for change: Need for additional gallery/exhibition space, offices, and library, ADA compliance for public spaces including restrooms. Effects of changes: The lobby was reconfigured with the addition of a new admissions desk, expanded coat check room, and new moveable furniture for the book store at a cost of $500,000. The expansion was announced in 1995 and budgeted at $13.5 million.  It added approximately 13,000 sf of exhibition space to the museum.  Breuer’s original building anticipated expansion into adjoining sites to the south with the inclusion of break-through panels in the concrete wall on the south.  The museum is now connected to the buildings located at 943 Madision Avenue and 33 East 74th Street.  The fifth floor was converted into gallery space and the offices previously located there were moved into 33 East 74th Street.  The terraces located on the north and west sides of the floor were enclosed to provide additional gallery space.  These changes added 30% more exhibition space.  Skylights were installed.  The fourth floor mezzanine library was converted into gallery space.   Mechanical systems were moved to a new enclosure on the roof.  The other galleries were refurbished.  Paint was removed from the stone floors and stone base trim was restored.  Each of the more than 1,400 quarter-ton granite slabs on the building’s façade was removed, cleaned at a facility in Queens and replaced using new anchors. A banner sign was added outside the front entrance.-- Revamping the Whitney, Metropolis 1998 Feb.-Mar., v.17, n.6, p.50.--Let the Sun Shine In, New York Magazine, April 6, 1998.--Expanding an icon, Architecture 1998 June, v.87, n.6, p.108-113. Persons/organizations involved: Architects:  Gluckman Mayner Architects (Richard Gluckman and David Mayner, principles-charge; Martin Marciano, project architect; David Adler, Mark Fiedler, Patrick O’Brien, project team). Engineers:  Ove Arup & Partners (structural, mechanical, electrical).Consultants:  2 X 4 (signage). General Contractors:  AJ Contracting; York Hunter Services. Outdoor Signage:  Pentagram
Current Use: Of whole building/site: Museum with associated archive, library and administrative offices.  The building also contains a restaurant and gift shop.  Various spaces are used for special events. Of principal component: The main volume is primarily exhibition space along with restaurant and gift shops.  The connected townhouses and new construction primarily contain library/archives and administrative offices.
Current Condition: Of whole building/site: Good Of principal components: Good.  The each granite panel on the façade was taken down and cleaned during the 1998 renovation. Comments: Although the building is in good condition, having been renovated in 1998, the Whitney does feel a need for additional space, as evidenced by the numerous schemes for expansion since the late 1970’s.
General Description:

The main volume of the building is approximately 81 feet wide, 125 feet deep and 97 feet high.  The building is stepped away at and below grade, creating a void approximately 28 feet wide and 11 feet deep between the sidewalk and the building that is crossed by an entry bridge.  The building progressively moves back towards the street in three steps as it rises.  Breuer described it as an inverted ziggurat.  Next to the main volume on the south side is a smaller secondary volume, approximately 12 feet wide and 97 feet high, the upper portion of which slopes back away from street.  It contains the main stair as well as space for the museum’s restoration service.  This secondary volume is made of exposed concrete. The building is constructed primarily of concrete and clad with granite panels.  Split slate flooring is used throughout large portions of the building. Precast concrete coffers are hung above the second, third, and fourth floor galleries. An array of circular light fixtures hangs above the lobby.  The main façade, which faces west along Madison Avenue, has one large trapezoidal window which protrudes from the building at approximately 20 degrees.  The north façade has six smaller windows which have a shape similar to the large window. The building is set off from the townhouses on the block by two thick concrete walls, one on south side of the building and the other on the east side.  The south wall has “break though” panels which allow the main building to be connected to adjacent buildings on the block. The building has two floors below grade.  The lowest is primarily used for storage and service.  The next floor up contains a restaurant, gift shop and public restrooms.  The ground floor primarily contains a lobby.  The second, third, fourth and fifth floors are primarily gallery space.  Most of the space with was added (connected) to the museum by Gluckman Mayner Architects is contain in buildings that have maintained their townhouse appearance.  However, a tall masonry building was constructed behind the building at 33 East 74th Street at that time to provide a physical connection between it and the main building.  This new construction has a minimal presence from the street.

Construction Period:
Original Physical Context:

Name(s) of surrounding area/building(s): The Whitney is located within walking distance of the “Museum Mile” section of 5th Avenue including:  El Museo del Barrio at 104th Street; Museum of the City of New York at 103rd Street; Jewish Museum at 92nd Street; Cooper-Hewitt National Museum of Design at 91st Street; National Academy Museum and School of Fine Arts at 89th Street; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum at 88th Street; Metropolitan Museum of Art from 82nd to 86th Streets; Goethe House German Cultural Center at 82nd Street.
Visual relations: Many have noted the similarity between Breuer’s Whitney and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Guggenheim as both share the rough form of an inverted ziggurat.
Functional relations:The Whitney was expanded into the building located at 33 East 74th Street as well new construction between the two buildings in 1998.  The annex includes a library, archives and offices.  The building at 943 Madison Avenue contains storage and administrative space for the museum and previously contained the museum’s “Store Next Door,” The museum also operates the “Whitney Museum of American Art at Altria” which is located at 120 Park Avenue at 42nd Street, New York, New York 10017.

Evaluation
Technical Evaluation:

A comprehensive architect’s report detailing the design was prepared in November 1963.  It notes that the north and south wall was reinforced concrete bearing walls.  The east and west walls act has deep concrete trusses that span the 81 feet between the bearing walls.  The precast concrete coffers, arrayed in a two foot by two foot grid provide power and lighting over the galleries.  The ceilings are 12 feet 9 inches above the 2nd and 3rd floor galleries and 17 feet 6 inches above the 4th floor gallery.

Social:

The design of the museum was in part a response to the state of modern art at the time.  Breuer purposely minimized the use of windows to better showcase the work within.  The galleries can accommodate the large sculptures that were emerging at the time.

Cultural & Aesthetic:
Public and critical response to the building has been mixed.  The void in front of the museum as well as the walls on the south and east sides of the building have been considered hostile to the urban environment.  Moreover, the visual solidity of the building’s mass has proved inscrutable to many.  However, these same tactics allow the building to define a space for its remarkable form within a dense urban framework.  At the same it, it allows patrons to view works of art with a sense of remove from the distractions of the city. Instituitionally, the Whitney has come to be so deeply associated with its building. Canonical status: Built at a time when transparent high modernist buildings were very much in vogue, Breuer’s brutalist design distinguished itself with its primitive opacity.  There are few works of this style left in the city.  The only one other works by Breuer in New York City are at Bronx Community College.
Historical:
General Assessment:
Breuer’s use of the south and east walls to set off the building and define the block’s corner continues to be a source of inspiration to modern architects.  Notably, Zaha Hadid used a similar strategy in her design for the Contemporary Art Center in Cincinnati.
Documentation
Text references:

Whitney Museum of American Art Archives, Frances Mulhall Achilles Library
33 East 74th St., New York, NY 10021
The “finding aid” from the Whitney Archives lists the following documents related to the original construction: Whitney Museum of American Art Archives
Properties, 19XX-19XX, n.d.
Folder Contents Dates Box 1 945 Madison Avenue
10 Correspondence 
General, 1962-69; Marcel Breuer and Associates, 1963-68; Building Committee, 1963-67; Construction, 1964-69, n.d.; Dunnington, Bartholow & Miller, 1963;
B.H. Friedman, 1963-67; HRH Construction, 1964-66; Michael Irving, 1963-68; Property, 1962-63; Correspondence and Reports, Wood and Tower, 1964-66, n.d.;
4 Correspondence and Memoranda,  Cafeteria and Friends Lounge, 1964-66; Mock-up, 1964; Stationary and Architectural Graphics, 1965-68; US Plywood Corporation, 1965-66; 2 Memoranda General, 1963-68, n.d.; Building Committee,1963-71; n.d., Property Offers, 1963; n.d., Architect’s Report, 1963; Contractor Bids, 1964; Furnishings, 1966; n.d.Building Information, 1978-81.
Box 2, 3, A Program for the New Whitney Museum; Correspondence and Notes, 1964-65; n.d., Newsletters and Brochures, 1964-66; In the Service of American Art, n.d., 2 Membership Applications, Correspondence and Memoranda, 965-66, n.d.; WMAA & Other Museums, 1966-67, n.d.; Cornerstone Ceremony, 1964; 10 Opening Correspondence, 1966; Correspondence – Congratulations, 1966; Memoranda, 1966; Schedule- Meeting Minutes, n.d.; Dedication,  1966; Invitation Lists, 1966, n.d.; Dinner Parties, 1966, n.d.; RSVPs, 1966; Invitations and Tickets, 1966; Placecards, n.d.; Outside Group Parties, 1966; Preliminary Announcement and Report, 1963, n.d.; Press Releases, 1963, 1964; 7 Press Clippings, 1956-Aug. 1966, 1956-66, Sept.-Oct. 1966, 1966, Nov. 1966-Feb. 1986, 1966-86; Jacqueline Kennedy’s visit to construction site  1965; The New Yorker, 1966, n.d.;
General,1963-66;General, Publicity, 1966, n.d.; Breuer correspondence, 1963-66; Reviews; n.d.; Note: Building photographs are in Photo archives
5. 2 principal publications (in chronological order):
Breuer’s Whitney An Anniversary Exhibition, New York, 1996.; Ezra Stoller, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2000.; Whitney Museum Finds a New Home, New York Times, June18, 1963.; Plans Shown for New Building for Whitney Museum, New York Times, December 12, 1963.; Cornerstone of New Whitney Museum Laid, New York Times, October 21, 1964.; Madison Avenue Now Has a New Castle, New York Times, July 23, 1966.; Whitney Museum Holds a Preview, New York Times, September 8, 1966.; Harsh and Handsome, Ada Louise Huxtable, New York Times, September 8, 1966; Whitney Museum has Gala Opening, New York Times, September 28, 1966.; Art:  The Whitney Museum Shows What it Can Do … In the Right Building, New York Times, October 2, 1966.; Norman Foster (proposed addition, unbuilt); Whitney Museum of American Art extension, 1979, Architectural record 1979 Mid-Aug., v.166, n.3, p.54-55.; Michael Graves (proposed addition, unbuilt); Paul Spencer Byard, The Architecture of Additions, New York, p.151-53, 1998.; Michael Graves tackles the Whitney, Roger Kimball, Architectural record 1985 Oct., v.173, no.12, p.113,115.; Growing pains, Metropolis 1987 May, v.6, no.9, p.22-23.; Third time's a charm, maybe?, Architectural record 1989 Mar., v.177, no.3, p.43.; An Appraisal; A Daring and Sensitive Design, Paul Goldberger, New York Times, May 22, 1985.; Whitney Addition Planned, New York Times, May 22, 1985.; Architecture View; For the Whitney, Adding Less May Result in More, Paul Goldberger, New York Times, August 11, 1985.; Neighbors Criticize Plan to Expland Whitney, New York Times, November 14, 1985.; Expansion at the Whitney:  The Debate Broadens, New York Times, November 26, 1985.; The Whitney Unveils Smaller Expansion Plan, New York Times, March 11, 1987.; Architecture View; Adding a Little Less to the Whitney, New York Times, March 15, 1987.; Whitney Expansion Raises Preservation Issue, New York Times, May 24, 1987.; Whitney Proposal Wins Backing of Local Board, New York Times, June 19, 1987; Review/Architecture;  3d Try on an Expansion Design for the Whitney, New York Times, December 20, 1988.; Architecture View;  The Whitney Paradox:  To Add is to Subtract, New York Times, January 8, 1989.; Considering the Once and Future Whitney, New York Times, November 17, 1996.; Richard Gluckman (addition built 1998); Revamping the Whitney, Philip Nobel, Metropolis 1998 Feb.-Mar., v.17, n.6, p.50.; Let the Sun Shine In, New York Magazine, April 6, 1998.; Expanding an icon, Allan Schwartzman,  Architecture 1998 June, v.87, n.6, p.108-113.; Inside Art, New York Times, August 5, 1994..; Postings:  Project Leaves the Exterior Unchanged; Whitney Planning $13.5 Million Expansion, New York Times, August 20, 1995.; Inside Art, New York Times, September 20, 1995.; Art Review; Whitney Whittles Intimate Corners, New York Times, April 3, 1998.; OMA (proposed addition, unbuilt) Newhitney - scheme A, A + U: architecture and urbanism 2003 Nov., n.11(398), p.9-74.; Newhitney - scheme B, A + U: architecture and urbanism 2003 Nov., n.11(398), p.75-98.; Inside Art, New York Times, February 16, 2001.; Whitney Scraps Expansion Plans, New York Times, April 15, 2003.; Whitney Museum Cancels Koolhaas-Designed Expansion, Architectural Record, April 16, 2003.; Renzo Piano Building Workshop (proposed addition, unbuilt); Renzo Piano chosen to design Whitney Museum expansion, Sam Lubell, Architectural record 2004 July, v.192, n.7, p.21.; Whitney Museum unveils model for its expansion, Sam Lubell, Architectural record 2004 Dec., v.192, n.12, p.32.; Once Again, the Whitney is Planning to Expand, New York Times, May 19, 2004.; Whitney Hires Renzo Piano to Design its Expansion, New York Times, June 16, 2004.; Piano to Design Whitney Museum Expansion, Architectural Record, June 16, 2004.; Whitney’s New Plan:  A Respectful Approach, New York Times, November 9, 2004.; Whitney Museum Unveils Models of Renzo Piano’s Museum Expansion, Architectural Record, November 12, 2004.; Whitney’s Expansion Plan Concerns Preservationists, Architectural Record, February 14, 2005.; Whitney Wants Plan A, but Says it Has Plan B, New York Times, May 24, 2005.; Modified Whitney Expansion Plan Wins Approval, Architectural Record, May 25, 2005.; Arts, Briefly; Green Light for Whitney Expansion, New York Times, January 13, 2006.; Whitney Museum May Move Expansion to Downtown Site, New York Times, October 31, 2006.; Architecture; Uptown or Down?  The Whitney’s Identity Crisis, New York Times, November 2, 2006.; Whitney Museum Considers Nixing Piano Expansion, Architectural Record, November 22, 2006.; Whitney’s Expansion Plans are Shifting South, to the Meatpacking District, New York Times, November 28, 2006.; Whitney Inks Conditional Deal for the High Line, Architectural Record, November 28, 2006.

Authoring
Recorder/Date: name of reporter: Paul H. Yoo
DOCOMOMO US
P.O. Box 230977
New York, NY 10023
Terms of use | Contact | Privacy Policy | Credits
© 2016 DOCOMOMO US Syndicate content Google+