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    Seagram Building

    Added by Ji Hong Kim, last update: December 2, 2015, 11:18 am

    Seagram Building
    Delta 51. Seagram Building in New York City. 30 April 2008. Wikimedia Commons. 24 November 2015.
    375 Park Avenue
    New York City, NY 10022
    United States
    40° 45' 30.8808" N, 73° 58' 21" W
    Identity of Building / Site
    Primary classification: Commercial (COM)
    Secondary classification: Commercial (COM)
    Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):

    National Historic Place
    New York City Landmark(1989)

    History of Building/Site
    Original Brief:

    In anticipation of the celebration of its one hundredth anniversary in 1958, the Joseph E. Seagram and Sons Corporation began planning from 1954. They selected site between 52nd 53rd streets on the east side of Park Avenue. Phyllis Lambert , daughter of Seagram board chairman Samuel Bronfman (1891-1971) request the Museum of Modern Art for advice for monumental headquarter building. Phillip Johnson who was about to leave the position in the museum nominated many famous designers. Lambert and Johnson indicated Mies van der Rohe finally.

    Dates: Commission / Completion:The owner’s requirements were that the building “be the crowning glory of everyone’s work, his own, the contractor’s and Mies’s.” The building was designed by Mies and Johnson, with Kahn & Jacobs preparing the working drawings. Photographs of a model of the new design were published by April, 1955. It was rectangular thirty-eight story building with curtain wall. Full modular plan of the building and public space at the ground level and its continuity to the lobby was innovative along with its dark curtain wall façade with bronze I-beam mullion. Existed buildings were demolished between June, 1955, and March, 1956. Construction began soon afterward. It completed in 1958.
    Architectural and other Designer(s): architect(s): Mies van der Rohe and Phillip Johnson landscape/garden designer(s): Mies van der Rohe and Phillip Johnson other designer(s): Kahn & Jacobs consulting engineer(s): Jaros, Baum & Bolles (mechanical); Severud-Elstad Krueger (structural); Clifton E. Smith (electrical); Richard Kelly (lighting) building contractor(s): George A. Fuller Company
    Others associated with Building/Site:
    Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s):
    Current Use: Office building
    Current Condition:
    General Description:
    Construction Period:


    Original Physical Context:

    Park Avenue was used for railroad pass in the 19th century. By 1880s, the trains ran into an open cut below grade to the Grand Central Depot, and there are many one or two story shops and residences. The 1916 zoning resolution designated the portion of Park Avenue north of East 50th Street as residential, but by 1929 major owners on the avenue succeeded in having the area between East 50th and 59th streets rezoned to permit commercial use. With building boom after World War II, there were some office buildings near the site in the 1950s. The site was occupied by the twelve-story Montana Apartment Building on park Avenue, a nine-story apartment building on East 53rd Street, and a five-story tenement and row of four-story buildings, all on East 52nd Street.

    Technical Evaluation:

    It is the tallest steel frame office building so far. Structural and mechanical innovations abounded in the design. It has very high defined material with highest detail. Cladding material, bronze, is most unique in this building. Façade curtain wall is all products of pioneering efforts of research and fabrication. Also, it makes building looks good as it aged.


    It created public space offered by office tower in the city. This innovative plan effect on Zoning Code. It was in accordance with the viewpoints of several New York architectural firms such as Kahn & Jacobs, which had been urging Parks Commissioner Robert Moses to propose a revision to the zoning regulations, in order to replace full-site ziggurat towers with large buildings surrounded by open spaces. This changed urbanscape and skylines of New York City.

    Cultural & Aesthetic:
    It is pure expression of modern skyscraper. It was the ultimate manifestation of a machine-made, modular aesthetic. The tradition of glass tower was began from after World War I by Expressionist architects such as Bruno Taut. Mies designed Glass Tower in 1921 and it represent the new era by steel and glass. He strongly inspired steel frames before they were covered with all that masonry. Image of this buiding means external expression of its hidden structure. In addition, this building reflects Mies’s logical modular plan as well as his attitude to the modern material and structure. It also succeeded to create light urban space with high-rise buildings. Mies made balance minimalist structure with pure volume and negative space. Set back and floated above the massless volume of the building plays off against the plaza's negative space, achieving unities.

    Mies’s visionary modernism was realized in postwar America. Glass tower was a ideal of Mies from 1920s and he think this type of architecture expressed the epoch. America’s industrial technology and good economy after World War II made it possible. At that time American corporations were rushing to line up their head quarter skyscrapers on the Park Avenue.
    Also, it was an example of a new type of urban form inspiring the development of privately owned public places. Relationship between a building and the city that was unique in New York at the time of its construction. Also, It was the first bronze-clad skyscraper in the world.

    General Assessment:
    Text references:

    Sanborn Manhattan land book of the City of New York, Weehawken, NJ : TRW REDI Property Data, Northeast Region, 1975-76

    New York City. Department of Bulidings, Manhattan. Plans, Permits and Dockets. [Block 1307, Lot 1].

    Drexler, Arthur. The Mies van der Rohe Archive Vol 16. New York: Garland, 1986

    New York Landmarks Preservation Commission. Seagram Building, Including the Plaza, Oct. 3, 1989, Designation List 221, LP-1664

    New York Landmarks Preservation Commission. Seagram Building, First Floor Interior, Oct. 3, 1989, Designation List 221, LP-1665

    New York Landmarks Preservation Commission. For Seasons Restaurant, First Floor Interior, Oct. 3, 1989, Designation List 221, LP-1666

    National Park Service, Seagram Building, Feb. 24, 2006, 06000056 NRIS (National Register Information System)
    (http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Text/06000056.pdf) (Not digitized yet)
    (http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Photos/06000056.pdf) (Not digitized yet)

    Recorder/Date: JiHong Kim, 03/24/2011

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library

    Added by Lindsey Schweinberg, last update: September 25, 2012, 9:56 am

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library
    Exterior view of entrance plaza, source: Cliffords Photography, http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3423182770/, date: 2008
    901 G Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001
    United States
    38° 53' 54.4128" N, 77° 1' 28.9056" W
    Identity of Building / Site
    Primary classification: Education (EDC)
    Secondary classification:
    Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
    History of Building/Site
    Original Brief:

    Commission Brief: Architect Mies van der Rohe was commissioned to design a structure to house the main branch of the District of Columbia Public Library.  The commission followed a determination to replace the a white marble, Beaux Arts Carnegie Library located at 801 K Street at Mount Vernon Square. As with many other library modernization projects of the era, the Carnegie structure was deemed outdated and overcrowded.
    Design Brief: The Fine Arts Commission, which oversaw the design competition, required a flexible interior plan and a capacity to create an addition when needed. In addition, they specified the need for prominent points of vertical communication in the form of elevators and dumbwaiters in the design of the library. Prior to this structure, the Commission had never approved a Modernist design for Washington D.C.  The design entailed a 400,000 square ft., four story building of steel, glass, and brick. There was a potential fifth story addition prefigured in the design and three underground stories that included a parking level for 100 automobiles.
    Building/Construction: Construction on the building began in 1968 and was scheduled to finish in 1970, however it continued through the summer of  1972.  The architect Mies van der Rohe died in 1969 while the building was still under construction. 

    Dates: Commission / Completion:Commission or Competition Date: September 23, 1965. (e), Start of Site Work: ( c ) July 1968, Completion/Inauguration: ( c ) August 1972
    Architectural and other Designer(s): Architect:  Office of Mies van der Rohe Other:  Consulting Firm Booze, Allen, and Hamilton publish report in 1961 that declares the need for a new public library.  This report begins the process that leads to the new Martin Luther King, Jr. Library. Consulting Engineer(s): Nelson Ostrom Baskin and Bernam Building Contractor(s): Blake Construction Company
    Others associated with Building/Site: Original Owner / Patron: Washington D.C. Library Board of Trustees. Name: Martin Luther King, Jr. Association: The building was built during the time period in which Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was at his height of prominence and power.  Further, the library was under construction when King was assassinated in 1968.  As a result of deep public mourning and outcry, the building was named after King as a memorial to his work.  It was the first public building to be named for King. The library houses a significant amount of archival material related to King and to the Civil Rights Movement. Period: Martin Luther King, Jr. continues to be associated with the building as it bears his name and hosts numerous events commemorating his life. 
    Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): Type of Change: The addition of a pedestrian plaza on the street adjacent to the library. Date: (e) 1977 Circumstances/Reasons for Change: Desire to increase pedestrian access to the area around the library. Effects of Change:  The plaza, called Hubert H. Humphrey Memorial Plaza fell into disuse and disrepair and became an area that attracted vagrants and crime.  The Plaza also changed the building’s relationship to the street pattern as it removed the flow of traffic by the library. Organization involved: District of Columbia City Government. Type of Change:  The removal of the Hubert H. Humphrey Memorial Plaza and the reinstatement of the vehicular street. Circumstances/Reasons for Change: City officials sought to revive the area surrounding the library and remove the plaza as a way to combat vagrancy and “blight.” Date:(e) 1999 Effects of Change: Traffic was reintroduced to the surrounding area of the library. Organization involved: District of Columbia City Government. Type of Change: Removal of much of the furniture in the library designed by architect Mies van der Rohe. Date:(c) 1980’s Circumstances/Reasons for Change:  The library was plagued with budget shortfalls and lack of funding which prevented proper care and maintenance of the entire building system.  Effects of Change: The furniture designed by Mies van der Rohe was part of the architectural concept of the building and its deterioration and removal changed the overall identity of the structure and the way that patrons related to it. Organization involved: District of Columbia Library Board of Trustees, District of Columbia City Government. Type of Change:  The installation of a mural depicting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr’s.  life in the lobby of the building. Date: (e) January 20, 1986. Circumstances / Reasons for Change: The mural was instated to commemorate the celebration of the first National Holiday dedicated to King and to solidify the connection between the library and King.  Effect of Change: The mural became one of the most revered parts of the library for visitors and patrons.
    Current Use: Of whole building/site: District of Columbia Public Library Main Branch Of principal components:  Many of the building’s integral components, such as elevators and HVAC systems are often inoperable.  The state of disrepair in the library is of significant affect to the patrons and poses a serious threat to the operational integrity of the building. Comments:  The state of operational function of the building has come under much scrutiny, as Washington DC public officials and citizens debate the future use of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library.
    Current Condition: Of whole building:  The building’s primary structural components are in good condition, however many of its interior systems such as the HVAC system, lighting, and elevators are in great disrepair. Of surrounding area: A plaza was built several years after the library was constructed that became rundown and has since been removed (see alterations section 2.5).  Today the streets surrounding the building are open to vehicular traffic.
    General Description:

    The Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library is a rectangular 400,000 square foot building with four stories above ground and three below, with the bottom most level consisting of a parking garage.  Composed of a steel frame, curtain wall, and columnar grid it incorporates all functions in a remarkably bilateral fashion. Built in the metropolitan environment of Washington D.C., the building was designed to serve the needs of library patrons, community groups, and librarians.  As such, the structure concentrates upon vertical integration between all its levels, ensuring ease of flow and communication. Constructed of matte black steel, brick, and bronzed-tinted glass, the building exemplifies Mies van der Rohe’s mature sense of “Skin and Bones” architecture. Large tinted windows provide the primary conceptual statement of the building’s exterior, They create a shaded view of the books inside while simultaneously demonstrating the transparency of a public institution. With no major structural changes over time, the building remains a testament to the original time period and intent of the architect.  As the sole library designed by Mies, the structure stands as his only interpretation of what the form of the library, and in turn the public realm of knowledge, entailed.  With an open central space surrounded on all sides by book-stacks, offices, and meeting rooms, the library was outfitted with the most modern of technological conveniences at the time of its creation including book conveyor belts, pneumatic tubes, and dumbwaiters to speed conveyance from floor to floor.   The building has few fixed walls and a very open floor plan, illustrating Mies’ conception that the public space would need to evolve over time to remain relevant.  

    Construction Period:
    Original Physical Context:

    Name(s) of surrounding area / building(s):  The building is situated within the central Washington D.C. area, embedded between such iconic structures as the White House and Capitol Buildings.  It sits at a diagonal across from the National Portrait Gallery / Smithsonian American Art Museum, an 1836 Greek-Revival building that is listed on the National Register of Historic Buildings.
    Visual Relations:  The building is situated within the classical milieu of Downtown Washington, D.C. and is in direct site-line with the National Portrait Gallery / Smithsonian.
    Functional Relations: The buildings are not functionally related although both the library and museum serve educational purposes and are open to the public.  Many of the downtown buildings are civic in nature and representative of both national and local governmental identity.
    Other Relations: The buildings are related in their disparate architectural genesis, the Modern International Style of the library acts as a counterpoint to the Greek Revival Museum and for many the two buildings act as vying symbols of what downtown Washington D.C. should embody. 
    Completed Situation:  When the building was completed it occupied almost the entire block between 9th and 10th Streets NW along G Street.
    Original Situation or Character of Site: The original character of the site was urban in nature and was bought from several individuals in 1961 by the Library Board of Trustees.  The buildings upon the street primarily housed small retail establishments. Completed in 1972, the building was envisioned and constructed in a markedly different technological realm than today.  At the time, there was no provision for the Internet, and the library showcased prominent built in card catalogues to disseminate information.  Today, patrons view these features as an indicator of the obsolescence of the building for use  as an urban library. Further, with the disrepair of many of the building’s systems, many perceive the library as rundown and outmoded.  The current mayor of Washington DC, and many others in the city government want to move the library from the Mies van der Rohe building to the site of the old Washington DC Convention Center several blocks away as part of a downtown redevelopment scheme. Declaring the need for a “twenty first century library”, the mayor has made the fate of the library a central issue. In this plan, the District of Columbia would lease the Mies building to a private owner.  Many preservationists and civic groups decry the move and a civic fight has begun. In 2000, volunteer architects from the Washington D.C. chapter of the AIA commissioned a revitilization study that would alter the building’s interior and introduce a skylight to maintain its functional use as a library.  This plan was never adopted and the current dialogue points to the city abandoning the building in 2007 or 2008.  There is no indication, however, that the building will be torn down.   Ultimately, the building is in a deep state of disrepair and regardless of its future function needs functional repair.

    Technical Evaluation:

    The building was designed to be the penultimate modern library.  Equipped with state of the art technological services, a simple rectangular form, and large interior spaces broken by ordered, spare columns the building expressed the cool rationality of disciplined scholarship.  The structural materials are successful and the framework of the building is technically laudable.  The building exhibits experimentation and innovation in typology, with a myriad of functions flowing through a simple rectangular grid.


    As a social expression, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library was deeply innovative for its time.  The building was the first Modernist structure commissioned by the Art Commission of the District of Columbia and represented a social turning point for a tradition bound civic definition of architecture in Washington, D.C.  Located in the heart of the downtown area, and the successor to the classical Carnegie Library, the building was a conscious effort to commission an updated, innovative, and technologically advanced structure into the civic enterprise and fabric of Washington D.C.  By inserting this building into the L’Enfant designed center of Washington D.C., the city’s government was striving for a new city expression.   In addition, the building was Mies first and only application of his principles to a library and remains a testament to Modernist applications upon everyday, public life. 

    Cultural & Aesthetic:
    Mies designed the building to encapsulate a multitude of needs into a simple, clean form.  The exterior, clad in tinted glass curtain walls and steel exudes a stylistically regulated and constrained façade that exhibits an unbroken rhythm upon the street.  The rhythm is heightened, both literally and figuratively, by the existence of a colonnade on the street level of the building, where the steel frame rests upon regularly spaced thrusting columns. The desire for complex patterns of circulation, both of people and of books,  dominates the concern of the interior, with all seven floors (four above ground three below) striving to create a vertical unity through regularly placed elevator shafts and stairwells, and a myriad of open spaces leading to rooms with specific collections and functional uses. Canonical Status: At the time of its inception, the building was lauded by both architecture critics and the general public as being a seamless application of Mies’ architectural principles to the concept of a library.  The Washington Post architecture critic, Wolf Von Eckardt, stated that, “by the utter, pristine simplicity of the design…it is in itself a work of art, undoubtedly the best example of the art of modern architecture…in Washington D.C.”  As the first library designed by Mies, too, it represented an innovative Modernist solution to the problem of a technologically and systematically designed space for late twentieth century society. 
    General Assessment:
    Text references:

    The Records of the Commission of Fine Arts holds correspondence pertaining to the commission and construction of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library: The National Archives: Records of the Commission of Fine Arts.  Washington D.C. National Archives and Records Administration 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20408-0001 There are many books written on the work of Mies van der Rohe, several notable of which are: Johnson, Philip C. Mies van der Rohe. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1947.

    Zukowsky, John.  Mies Reconsidered: His Career, Legacy, and Disciples.  Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1986.

    Schulze, Franz.  An Illustrated Catalogue of Mies van der Rohe Drawings in the Museum of Modern Art, Part II: 1938-1967, The American Work. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc: 1992. Pg. 355-415.

    Carter, Peter.  Mies van der Rohe At Work.  London: Phaidon Press, 1999.

    Recorder/Date: Name of Reporter: Polly Seddon, Columbia University Date of Report: February 28, 2007
    Additional Images
    Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library
    Exterior view of entrance plaza, Source: DCPL Collection, DC Community Archives, Washingtoniana Division, DC Public Library, date: Unknown
    Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library
    Interior view of reading room , Source: DCPL Collection, DC Community Archives, Washingtoniana Division, DC Public Library, date: Unknown

    860-880 Lake Shore Drive

    Added by Lindsey Schweinberg, last update: May 1, 2014, 12:22 pm

    860-880 Lake Shore Drive
    860-880 N. Lake Shore Drive
    Chicago, IL 60611
    United States
    Identity of Building / Site
    Primary classification: Residential (RES)
    Secondary classification:
    Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
    History of Building/Site
    Original Brief:

    Original situation or character of site: After completion the towers were marketed as a cooperative apartment building and are fully occupied by September 1952.

    Dates: Commission / Completion:commission or competition date: c.1948, start of site work: e. December 1949, completion/inauguration: e. 1951
    Architectural and other Designer(s): Architect(s): Mies van der Rohe Other designer(s): Holsman, Klekamp and Taylor, Jacques Bownson, Myron Goldsmith and Joseph Fujikawa. Consulting engineer(s): Pace Associates
    Others associated with Building/Site: Original owner(s)/patron(s): Herbert Greenwald Developer Name(s):Robert H. McCormick Association: Landowner and developer with Herbert Greenwald Period:1948-1951
    Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): Type of change: Renovation Date(s):1981 Circumstances/reasons for change:Renovation work by Holabird and Root including the stainless steel around the two-story lobby glass, originally aluminum, was changed to stainless steel Effects of changes: non-compromising Persons/organizations involved: Holabird and Root Type of change:Restoration Date(s): 1992 Circumstances/reasons for change: work entailed resealing the buildings windows and restoring both towers’ facades Effects of changes: The resealing of the windows proceeded to curtail further water damage to the curtain wall while the façade restoration both repaired and deterred future damage from water leakage. Type of change: Restoration Date(s): 2007 (announced) Circumstances/reasons for change: In January the approximately $7.5 million restoration was announced. Work will include travertine repair and restoration of the plaza and lobby interiors, exterior steel returned to the original black color, restoration of exterior glass panes to sandblasted glass. Persons/organizations involved: Firm has not been chosen as of this February 2007
    Current Use: Of whole building/site: Residential apartment buildings
    Current Condition: Of whole building/site: the site is well maintained and although renovations have been performed no major work has been done that has changed the aesthetic integrity of the structures. Comments: Due to the buildings recommendation for landmark status as early as 1980, the buildings received the usual protection afforded to Chicago city landmarks without receiving the official designation
    General Description:

    The twin structures located perpendicular from each other are considered among Chicago’s most famous and prestigious apartment buildings. The pair of twenty-six-story towers at 860/ 880 Lake Shore Drive are located along the City's Gold Coast Extending from Chestnut Street north one block to Delaware Street with a view to Lake Michigan across the drive. Also important, is the site plan of the two buildings, which is shaped in a triangular shape and working with the position of 860 and 880 allows both buildings maximum views of the Lake Michigan.

    Construction Period:
    Original Physical Context:

    Name(s) of surrounding area/building(s): The Promontory Apartments,5530 S Shore Drive, Chicago, IL
    Other relations: The Promontory Apartments (5530 S Shore Drive, Chicago) constructed by Mies van der Rohe in 1948 for Herbert Greenwald were originally designed to have a glass and steel exterior. The final design instead utilized concrete with exposed columns, however the buildings alternate drawings were later developed into the design of 860-880 Lake Shore Drive. As stated above, in January 2007, an approximately $7.5 million restoration of the buildings was announced that will include travertine repair, restoration of the plaza and lobby interiors, exterior steel returned to the original black color, restoration of exterior glass panes to sandblasted glass.

    Technical Evaluation:

    The technical significance of 860-880 Lake Shore Drive is seen in both Mies’ choice of materials and structural approach. The buildings are considered his first application of glass and steel curtain wall on high-rise apartments houses in Chicago. The materials themselves are also one of the few steel and glass residential high rises in Chicago.


    “The Glass Houses.” Known as a modern architecture landmark, the buildings also represent a sleek style of modern living in its contemporary structure. The building is on the United States National Register and also was the first Mie’s van der Rohe designated landmark in the city of Chicago.

    Cultural & Aesthetic:
    The cultural and aesthetic evaluation can be seen through the buildings comparative significance. The towers are considered trailblazers in international style and the evolution of both the curtain wall and Mies van der Rohe's design influence on the city of Chicago. Recently featured on a USPS postal stamp celebrating “Master works of Modern Architecture”, the buildings are considered the symbol of the international style in Chicago. Further serving as inspiration for similar structures around the world, 860- 880 Lake Shore Drive is still considered one of the most pure examples of international style in a skyscraper. Canonical status : As a symbol of modern architecture, the buildings have held a status of being designed by a “celebrity architect.” As the appreciation of modernism has increased in recent years the role of these modern towers are integral in understanding the evolution of modern design in residential structures as well as the architectural and design growth of Mies van der Rohe. Furthermore, the buildings reflect and enforce the status of Chicago as being on the forefront of architectural patronage and design during the 20th century.
    General Assessment:
    The referential value of the buildings is their place as one of the first modern residential high rise structures in Chicago. The structures capture a moment in modern history that combines both a social and aesthetic crossroads in the city of Chicago. Capturing the sentiment of “modern living” reflected in the composition of glass and steel, the towers reflect both the sentiment of the mid twentieth century and the role of architecture in reflecting the aspirations of its generation of architects. Its status as a symbol of the International Style in Chicago and around the world only serves to reinforce the importance of most pure examples of the international style in a skyscraper. 860 and 880 Lake Shore Drive also mark a point of when the Chicago School of Architecture (started by Sullivan, Burnham and Root et al.) reaches its “height of modernism” (in the use of architectural innovations)- with the glass and steel construction, high rise structure and curtain wall façade. All advances put in place with the work of the original architects of the Chicago school and achieving full recognition and application by Mies and other architects at this point.
    Text references:

    Avery Archives, Columbia University, New York, NY
    Selected Bibliography-“860-880 Lake Shore Drive.” Chicago Landmarks. http://www.ci.chi.il.us
    Landmarks/numbers/860880LSD.html. Accessed 4 February 2007.
    Abrams, Janet. “Modernity…860-880 Lake Shore Drive in Chicago.” Metropolis.
    Bey Talks to Lifson, Lifson Talks up rehab of Mies 860-880.” Architecture Chicago October 1992, v.12, no.3. pp.76-77
    Plus. 11 January 2007. http://arcchicago.blogspot.com/. Accessed 4 February 2007.
    Carter, Peter. Mies van der Rohe at Work. New Ed edition, 1999. Phaidon Press, New Kamin, Blair. “2 of Mies’ Best Still in a Glass By themselves.” Chicago Tribune. York. P.52
    Lifson, Edward. “860 - 880 N. Lake Shore Drive by Mies to be Restored!” The New Chicago, Il. 20 September 1992, Final Edition. Modernist. 9 January 2007. http://edwardlifson.blogspot.com/2007/01/860-880.html Accessed 4 February 2007.
    Pomaranc, Joan. 860-880 Lake Shore Drive. Commission on Chicago Historical
    Sell, Shawn. “The Only Game in Town: Under Chicago’s New Landmarks Law, Politics Architectural Landmarks. Chicago, Il, 1980. Rule Preservation.” Historic Preservation. May-June 1996, v.48, no.3. p.24

    Recorder/Date: name of reporter: Deirdre Gould address: 444 East 20th Street, #8A, NY, NY 10009 telephone: 646-369-6022 e-mail: dmg2126@columbia.edu date of report: February 25, 2007

    S.R. Crown Hall

    Added by Lindsey Schweinberg, last update: August 17, 2012, 12:30 pm

    S.R. Crown Hall
    3360 South State Street
    Chicago, IL 60616
    United States
    41° 49' 59.0268" N, 87° 37' 38.1324" W
    Identity of Building / Site
    Primary classification: Education (EDC)
    Secondary classification:
    Federal, State, or Local Designation(s) and Date(s):
    History of Building/Site
    Original Brief:

    Commission brief: The groundwork for S.R. Crown Hall was set when Mies van der Rohe devised his master plan for the new IIT campus in 1941, which included a site for the “Architecture and Applied Arts Building.”  The new home of the architecture department, of which Mies was director at the time, was the last of 19 buildings to be constructed by the renowned architect at IIT.  The official commission for the "Department of Architecture and Institute of Design” building came from the Buildings and Grounds Committee in February 1950.  
    Design brief: Mies experimented with several schemes for Crown Hall before settling on the final design for a clear-span structure.  In the first dated drawings from May 24, 1952, the building elevation was similar to that of his earlier campus buildings of brick, steel, and glass.  The building footprint conformed to the 24-foot grid that dictated the layout of his campus master plan.  The design called for a ground floor, basement, and mezzanine to house the building functions.  The structural design consisted of a simple steel post and beam system, though unlike Mies’ other IIT buildings, the perimeter columns were not fully expressed on the brick and glass façade.   The early concept for Crown Hall shared many similarities with Mies’ un-built design for the IIT Library and Administration Building.  However the extent to which Mies contributed to the original scheme is unknown since its purpose was mainly for fundraising.  Several variations of the early design existed, in which modifications were made to the exterior glazing and outward expression of the structure.  Mies also conducted numerous space planning studies for the Department of Architecture and Institute of Design.
    In the next dated drawings from November 10, 1952, the building broke away from Mies’ campus plan and earlier IIT buildings.  The building footprint abandoned the regular campus grid and adopted a 10-foot module.  The cladding materials excluded brick and instead used just steel and glass.  Perhaps most notably, the roof girders and exterior columns for the clear-span structure were introduced into the design.  Mies had previously experimented with the use of exterior truss supports and uninterrupted spaces in his designs for the Cantor Drive-In, IIT’s Student Union Building, and the Manheim Theatre Competition.  Though the three projects were never built, they undoubtedly contributed to the final scheme for Crown Hall.   Several versions of the structural design showed between 4 and 6 exterior trusses, however Mies eventually settled on 4 solid steel girders to support the building.  The reasons for using girders rather than trusses were likely both aesthetic and practical, as trusses were unnecessary to support the span and would have been more difficult and expensive to fabricate.     
    Mies presented his drawings and a model to the Buildings Committee on November 25, 1952, where his design was declared “of such an extreme nature…a most advanced design.”  As proposed, the new design exceeded the $500,00 budget, causing the project to be delayed until the following spring.  The project resumed with two alternate floor plans in the next dated drawings from June 1, 1953.  Mies completed several layouts for the building, in which he experimented with the number of window modules and overall footprint, possibly to fulfill his design process or to reduce the cost of the project.  The plan for the main hall was essentially fixed by then end of June 1953, however the arrangement of the basement spaces was not set until sometime that fall. Fundraising for Crown Hall continued through the following year, though little changes were made to the building during that time.  A $250,000 donation by the Crown family in the name of Sol R. Crown provided the source for the name of the building.  On June 11, 1954 Mies was directed to precede with the design drawings, and on September 2, 1954 the Buildings Committee approved them.
    Building/construction: Following their approval, Mies’ design drawings were sent to PACE Associates, an associate architecture firm responsible for completing the construction documents and overseeing construction.  The construction drawings were distributed to several contractors in November 1954.  Twelve bids were submitted, with the award going to Dahl-Stedman Company.  Separate contracts were commissioned for work on the mechanical and electrical systems. Groundbreaking ceremonies for Crown Hall were held on December 2, 1954, and construction began soon after.  David Haid served as the project architect for Mies’ office, with PACE Associates overseeing daily construction activities.  Assembly of the steel structure began in the spring and continued into the summer.  A basement fire on March 25, 1955 caused significant damage and delayed construction by several weeks.  By July 1955 the steel structure was in place and ready for glazing.  Mies continued to rearrange the interior spaces in the main hall throughout the construction process.  The final arrangement for the partitions was set by August 1955.  Other changes during construction included the installation of sprinklers in the main hall, which was required once the city learned that the space was intended for educational purposes and not simply exhibition space.   Though construction was not yet complete, most of the building was occupied by November 1955.  The official dedication of Crown Hall took place on April 30, 1956 in a ceremony featuring speeches by architect Eero Saarinen, industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss, and city planning consultant Walter H. Blucher.   Speaking on the greatness of Crown Hall, Saarinen declared: “It is fitting that in this city architecture should be taught in the proudest building of this campus.  It is time that architectural education came out of the dingy attics of the past into this serene temple of the present.”   

    Dates: Commission / Completion:Commission or competition date: c. February 1950, Start of site work: e. December 2, 1954, Completion/inauguration: e. April 30, 1956
    Architectural and other Designer(s): Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Landscape/garden designer: Alfred Caldwell Other designers: Joe Fujikawa, Myron Goldsmith, PACE Associates, David Haid Consulting engineers: Frank Kornacker and Associates Building contractors: Dahl-Stedman Company
    Others associated with Building/Site: Original owner: IIT Department of Architecture and Institute of Design
    Significant Alteration(s) with Date(s): Type of change: Replacement of exterior glazing and roof, modifications to interior Date: c. 1975 Persons/organizations involved: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) Circumstances/reasons for change: Little work was done to Crown Hall for nearly two decades after its completion.  However general deterioration and wear prompted a renovation of the building in the mid-1970s.  Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) were selected to complete the project.  In February 1974, SOM issued a report detailing the current condition of the building and their recommendations for repair.   Effects of changes: Though not all of SOM’s suggestions were implemented, several significant changes were made under their direction in 1975.  The building received a new roof and ceiling tiles for the main hall.  New light fixtures were installed to increase artificial light levels on the desk surfaces.  The main hall was rearranged to provide additional administrative offices, and the wood partitions were refinished.  The basement layout was modified to accommodate changing spatial needs.  The steel frame also received a fresh coat of black paint. Perhaps the most significant change executed by SOM was the complete replacement of the exterior glazing.  According to SOM, the 1/4-inch thick translucent glass on the upper portion of the building no longer complied with building codes nor did it provide adequate resistance to wind loads.  Consequently it was replaced with 3/8-inch thick panels with new aluminum stops.  The sandblasted glass on the lower portion of the building was also replaced with a laminated product.  The exterior renovation was later criticized for its poor appearance and for vastly disrupting the quality of light in the building.      Type of change:  Repair of exterior porches and doors, installation of air conditioning Date: c. 1985-1986 Persons/organizations involved: George Schipporeit, Peter Beltemacchi, David Sharpe Circumstances/reasons for change: Following the renovation by SOM, little work was done to Crown Hall until the mid-1980s.  In 1984, several repairs were planned for the building in preparation for the centennial of Mies’ birthday. Effects of changes: From 1985-1986, a number of projects were completed on the exterior of Crown Hall.  The travertine north and south porches were repaved, and a new stainless steel framing system was installed for the north steps.  The Ellison stainless steel doors were refurbished and the original weather-stripping was removed.  The steel frame was repainted, broken glazing was replaced, and platform lifts were added at the north entry and west interior stair. The most significant alteration undertaken in the mid-1980s was the installation of air conditioning.  The project required considerable modifications to the floor and removal of the roof of the penthouse, which received two rooftop condensers. Type of change: Renovation of basement, replacement of roof, modifications to air conditioning Dates: 1989-1996 Persons/organizations involved: Gene Summers, Fujikawa Johnson and Associates Circumstances/reasons for change: In 1989, the Institute of Design moved out of Crown Hall, allowing the department of architecture to occupy the entire basement.  The lower level of the building was reworked as a result.  Other maintenance repairs were completed in the mid-1990s as well. Effects of changes: The entire south end of the basement was rearranged between 1990-1993 to make room for the new Graham Resource Center, administration offices, and a lecture hall.  The relocation of the administrative offices from the upper level to the basement allowed for some reconfiguration of the main hall partitions. In 1996, Crown Hall received a new roof, for which the original steel angle copings were replaced with painted aluminum coating against the recommendations of project consultant Fujikawa Johnson.  The air conditioning system was also changed, eliminating the need for rooftop condensers.  Consequently the penthouse roof was replaced. Type of change: Replacement of exterior glazing, modifications to interior Dates: c. 2002-2005 Persons/organizations involved: Krueck and Sexton Architects, McClier Preservation Group Circumstances/reasons for change: Nearly 50 years after its completion, Crown Hall was in need of major renovation.  Though several projects had been completed on the building throughout its history, the effects of age, improper alterations, and piecemeal maintenance were largely apparent.  In 2002, Krueck and Sexton Architects were selected to perform a multi-million dollar renovation of Crown Hall with the assistance of preservation consultant Gunny Harboe.   Effects of changes: The Crown Hall renovation was divided into three phases, the first of which took place on the building interior.  The project included repainting the storage lockers, refurbishing the oak partitions, and wiring the main floor for electrical and data services. The second phase of the project involved restoring the exterior of the building to its original aesthetic.  The steel frame was stripped of its original lead-based paint, repaired, and repainted to match the original “Miesian black.”  The exterior glazing was replaced to resolve both its functional and visual inadequacies.  Recapturing the original aesthetic while brining the building up to code required some compromise.  Modern building practice would not allow the replacement of the 1/4-inch thick transparent panels used by Mies on the upper portion of the walls.  Instead, 1/2-inch thick, low-iron glass was installed in custom-made stops to give the upper panels their ‘barely-there’ appearance.  The lower portion of the wall was replaced with sandblasted panels and coated with clear epoxy so as to maintain the appearance while preventing staining and scratching. The Crown Hall restoration was named the Richard H. Driehaus Foundation Preservation Project of the Year in 2006.  The award honors “individuals, organizations, projects, and programs whose work demonstrates a commitment to excellence in historic preservation.”
    Current Use: whole building/site: Crown Hall is occupied by the IIT Department of Architecture.  Of principal components: The first floor of Crown Hall is a glass-walled, column-less space in which student work areas and exhibition space are loosely divided by low-standing oak partitions.  The lower floor provides more traditionally divided space for workshops, lecture rooms, service spaces, administrative offices, and the Graham Resource Center.
    Current Condition: Of whole building/site: Crown Hall recently underwent an enormous renovation, inside and out, to return it as nearly as possible to its original aesthetic.  When it reopened in 2005, it appeared as clean and sophisticated as when it was built.    Of principal components: As part of the renovation, the exterior glazing was entirely replaced, the steel structure was refurbished and repainted, and the travertine south porch was repaired. Of other elements: On the interior, the wood partitions in the main hall were refurbished.  Of surrounding area: The landscape around the building was re-designed and re-planted, pulling inspiration from the original design by Caldwell, by landscape architect Peter Lindsay Schaudt around the time of the renovation.
    General Description:

    Crown Hall is one of 19 modern buildings designed by Mies van der Rohe for the Illinois Institute of Technology.  As the last project to be completed for Mies master plan, Crown Hall departs from his earlier campus buildings in its proportion, structure, and materials. 
    Exterior: The building is arranged on a 10-foot module, unlike Mies’ other IIT buildings that derive their scale from a 24-foot grid.  The steel and glass hall measures 120 feet by 220 feet and is divided lengthwise into three 60-foot bays with a 20-foot overhang on each end.  It is supported by an advanced structural system of four 6-foot deep exposed girders and perimeter columns, from which the roof is essentially suspended.  All steel is painted black, and all joints are field welded to provide a near seamless appearance.  Centered atop the roof is a 6-foot tall penthouse. The exterior walls are clad entirely in glass, with vertical steel I-beams spaced at 10-foot intervals supporting the expansive panels.  The glazing is divided into three horizontal sections by steel mullions.  The upper layer is transparent and runs from the top of the wall down to a height of nearly 8 feet above the main floor.  The middle layer is translucent, except in the center bay, and is further divided into two vertical sections.  Below the translucent lights are 8-inch high louvered vents that provide ventilation to the main hall.  The lower layer of glazing runs from ground level to the main floor and supplies natural light to the basement. Crown Hall rests on a flat lawn planted with trees and ivy.  The main entrance is on the south side of the building.  Travertine stairs and a platform that seem to float above the ground serve as the approach for two pairs of Ellison stainless steel doors.  Only thin metal handrails, a later addition, provide a sense of grounding.  A secondary entrance on the north elevation mirrors that on the south, with two sets of cast concrete steps and a travertine landing leading to a second pair of Ellison doors.  Two exterior entrances are also provided for the basement level on the north side.
    Interior: The building comprises two floors, with the main hall raised 4 feet above grade to allow for clerestory windows in the basement.  Due to the nature of the building’s structure, the main hall becomes a column-less universal space, perhaps the greatest ever designed by Mies.  There are no formal divisions of space in the 18-foot tall room. Rather areas are sectioned off with freestanding wood partitions that only rise to about 8 feet, allowing for an uninterrupted overall view of the hall.  Only two vertical chases extend all the way from floor to ceiling.  A 1-foot wide soffit surrounds the perimeter of the ceiling, making it appear as though it is detached from the walls and floating above the space.  The white acoustic ceiling tile is a sharp contrast to the black terrazzo floor.  Thin metal handrails distinguish the two cast terrazzo staircases that penetrate the floor and lead to the lower level.  Though less architecturally significant to the overall composition of the building, the basement provides space for service facilities and other operations that require more formalized division.  Rooms are arranged around a main stair hall and two corridors, which share the same terrazzo floor as the upper level.  The walls are almost entirely concrete block, and the concrete slab of the floor above serves as the ceiling in most areas.

    Construction Period:
    Original Physical Context:

    This building is a part of the Illinois Institute of Technology campus.
    Visual relations: Crown Hall was one of 19 buildings designed by Mies van der Rohe for his master plan for the IIT campus.  Among his other buildings were Perlstein Hall (1945-1946), Alumni Memorial Hall (1945-1946), Wishnick Hall (1945-1946), and Siegal Hall (1945-46, 1956-1957). Completed situation: Crown Hall was intentionally situated within the IIT campus on an open lawn, visually isolated from its surroundings by sidewalks on all sides.  Alfred Caldwell designed the landscaping around the building, which included Honey Locust trees and Boston ivy.     
    Original situation or character of site: The site for Crown Hall was created as part of a 120 acre campus master plan for IIT, following the merger of the Lewis and Armour Institutes in 1940.  The campus was located on the site of the former Armour Institute and incorporated several of its older buildings into the design, including Machinery Hall (1901).  
    Present context: In 1996, architect and Mies’ grandson Dirk Logan created a new master plan for IIT that proposed restoring the main components of Mies’ plan and constructing several new buildings on the campus.  The McCormick Tribune Campus Center, a dramatic addition to the campus design by renowned architect Rem Koolhaas, was opened in 2003.  The State Street Village residence hall, a state-of-the-art student living environment by architect Helmut Jahn, was completed in the same year.  Crown Hall and Wishnick Hall, another of Mies’ designs, were pinpointed for restoration as part of the campus revitalization.  With two phases of renovation complete at Crown Hall, a third stage is planned to reduce the overall energy use of the building.  An automated building management system will be installed to control all of the engineered systems.  Automated blinds will be added to take advantage of opportunities for natural light, and the original heating system beneath the floor will be retrofitted to provide cooling as well.

    Technical Evaluation:

    The clear-span, steel and glass construction of Crown Hall epitomized the Modernist values of structural clarity, material innovation, and adaptable space.  The ingenious use of rooftop girders supported by perimeter columns represented the “first large-scale realization of Mies’ concept for a…universal space building.”5  Crown Hall admitted to its complete reliance on its structural system by placing the structural elements at the center of its design and leaving them entirely exposed.  The glass curtain wall eliminated any question about how the building was supported.  It allowed the building to be honestly understood from both inside and out and promoted Mies’ philosophy of “almost nothing.”


    The plan for Crown Hall offered a radical alternative to traditional school building design, much like Mies’ teaching theories advanced the field of architectural education in the United States.  As director of the IIT Department of Architecture, Mies completely transformed the curriculum of the program, incorporating into it both his own personal philosophy and the ideals transferred to him during his time at the Bauhaus.  At Crown Hall, Mies’ collaborative teaching methods were transformed into a physical reality.  Specifically in the main hall, he created cooperative environment in which students and faculty were encouraged to interact openly with one another.  The glass-walled, column-less space sought to further the architectural pursuits of its inhabitants by allowing for the free flow of light, air, conversation, and creativity.   

    Cultural & Aesthetic:
    As conceived, Crown Hall carefully combined function and appearance into one harmonious composition.  The clarity and rationality of the design hinged on an honest expression of structure, unobstructed through the use of exterior glazing.  Its delicate proportion, rhythm, and visual purity were expressed both inside and out, using only the most basic elements, minimalist materials, and simplest details.  Mies himself described the building as “the clearest structure we have done, the best to express our philosophy.”  Crown Hall demonstrated that steel and glass could be combined to create a sophisticated design that remained visually and functionally true to its purpose and structure.       From its conception, Crown Hall was recognized as an exemplary model of the International Style and the Modernist Movement.  It received great praise from individuals, architects, and several of the most notable journals of the time.  A 1956 article in Architectural Forum expressed the magnitude of Crown Hall, declaring “the structural clarity of IIT’s newest building is unlikely ever to be surpassed in steel.”  Its combination of structure, materials, and adaptable space advanced the possibilities of Modernist values in steel and glass construction, thereby meriting continued attention by current architectural practice.  
    General Assessment:
    Crown Hall was part of a series of studies in steel, glass, and clear-span spaces by Mies.  Beginning in the mid-1940s, he played with the ideas of universal space and exterior structure in his designs for the Cantor Drive-In, IIT’s Student Union Building, and the Manheim Theatre Competition, though none were ever constructed.  At Farnsworth House (1947-1951), Mies was able to transform these notions into a physical reality.  The rural house consisted of one room, interrupted by only a service core, with glass walls that nearly eliminated the barrier between interior and exterior.  It should be noted that other architects of the time were adopting similar ideas, such as Philip Johnson with his Glass House (1949).  At Crown Hall, Mies adapted the same fundamental principles to a much larger scale, setting a precedent for spatial and structural possibilities.  His later work at the Federal Center Post Office in Chicago (1959-1974) and the National Gallery in Berlin (1962-1968) pulled inspiration from Crown Hall. 
    Text references:

    Graham Resource Center, S.R. Crown Hall, 3360 South State Street, Chicago, IL 60616
    IIT Archive, Paul V. Galvin Library 35 West 33rd Street, Chicago, IL 60616
    IIT Facilities Department Machinery Hall, 100 West 33rd Street, Chicago, IL 6061
    Chicago Historical Society 1601 North Clark Street, Chicago, IL 60614
    The Ryerson and Burnham Libraries, Art Institute of Chicago, 111 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60603
    The Museum of Modern Art 11 West 53rd Street, New York, NY 10019
    The Canadian Center for Architecture 1920, rue Baile, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3H 2S6
    The following list of publications is an expansion of the bibliography obtained from the Historic Structures Report conducted by McClier Preservation Group in 2000.
    Spaeth, David A. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: An Annotated Bibliography and Chronology. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1979.
    Vance, Mary. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Selected Journal Articles Published 1970-1986. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies, 1987.
    Books and catalogues
    Achilles, Rolf and Charlotte Myhrum. Guide to the Campus of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago: IIT, 1986.
    Bach, Ira J., ed. Chicago’s Famous Buildings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
    Banham, Reyner. Age of the Masters: A Personal View of Modern Architecture. New York:Harper & Row, Publishers, 1975.
    Berger, Miles L. They Built Chicago: Entrepreneurs Who Shaped a Great City’s Architecture. Chicago: Bonus Books, Inc., 1992
    Better Buildings, Better Industrial Design and Better Cities: How Illinois Institute of Technology
    Proposes to Help Up-Date the Physical Patterns of Our Time. Chicago: IIT, 1954.
    Blake, Peter. The Master Builders. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960.
    Blaser, Werner. Mies van der Rohe. Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag Basel, 1997.
    Blaser, Werner. Mies van der Rohe: Continuing the Chicago School of Architecture. Stuttgart: Birkhauser Verlag Basel, 1981.
    Blaser, Werner.  Mies van der Rohe: Crown Hall.  Basel; Boston: Birkha?user, 2001.
    Blaser, Werner.  Mies van der Rohe: IIT Campus, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.  Basel; Boston: Birkha?user, 2002.
    Blaser, Werner. Mies van der Rohe: Less is More. Zurich: Waser, 1986.
    Blaser, Werner. Mies van der Rohe: The Art of Structure. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1993.
    Blaser, Werner. West Meets East – Mies van der Rohe. Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag Basel, 1996.
    Carter, Peter. “Mies van der Rohe.” In The Rationalists: Theory and Design in the Modern Movement. ed. by Denis Sharp, New York: Architectural Book Publishing Company,1979, 59-71.
    Carter, Peter. Mies van der Rohe at Work. London: Pall Mall Press, 1974; reprint, London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1999.
    Cohen, Jean Louis. Mies van der Rohe. London: E & FN Spon, 1996.
    Condit, Carl W. Chicago 1930-70: Building, Planning, and Urban Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.
    Converging Visions: The Making of a University. Chicago: IIT Press, 1991.
    De Sola-Morales, Ignasi. Differences: Topographies of Contemporary Architecture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.Dedication Ceremonies: S.R. Crown Hall, Dedicated to the Advancement of Architecture, Design, and City and Regional Planning. Chicago: IIT, 1956. Domer, Dennis, ed. Alfred Caldwell: The Life and Work of a Prairie School Landscape Architect. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Drexler, Arthur. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1960. Glaeser, Ludwig. Global Architecture: Mies van der Rohe. ed. Yukio Futagawa, Tokyo: A.D.A. Edita, n.d. Harrington, Kevin. “Order, Space, Proportion – Mies’s Curriculum at IIT.” In Mies van der Rohe: Architect as Educator. ed. Rolf Achilles, Kevin Harrington and Charlotte Myhrum, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Heald, Henry. “Mies van der Rohe at I.I.T.” In Four Great Makers of Modern Architecture. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970. Hilberseimer, Ludwig. Contemporary Architecture: Its Roots and Trends. Chicago: Paul Theobald and Company, 1964. Hilberseimer, Ludwig. Mies van der Rohe. Chicago: Paul Theobald and Company, 1956.
    Holt, Glen E. and Dominic A. Pacyga. Chicago: A Historical Guide to the Neighborhoods. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1979. Illinois Institute of Technology: Its Purpose and Its History. Chicago: IIT, 1970. Illinois Institute of Technology: Main Campus Guide. Chicago: IIT, 1996. Johnson, Philip C. Mies van der Rohe. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1978. Macauley, Irene. The Heritage of Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago: IIT, 1978.
    Mertins, Detlef, ed. The Presence of Mies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. Mies van der Rohe. Library of Contemporary Architects, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970. Mies van der Rohe, European Works. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. Neumeyer, Fritz. The Artless Word: Mies van der Rohe on the Building Art. trans. Mark Jarzombek, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Pommer, Richard, David Spaeth and Kevin Harrington. In the Shadow of Mies: Ludwig Hilberseimer Architect, Educator, and Urban Planner.Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago (in association with Rizzoli International Publications), 1988. Scully, Vincent. American Architecture and Urbanism. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1988. Shulze, Franz.  Illinois Institute of Technology: the Campus Guide, an Architectural Tour.  New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005. Schulze, Franz. Mies van der Rohe: A Critical Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Schulze, Franz. Mies van der Rohe: Interior Spaces. Chicago: The Arts Club of Chicago, 1982. Schulze, Franz, ed. The Mies van der Rohe Archive. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1992. Sinkevitch, Alice, ed. AIA Guide to Chicago. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1993. Spaeth, David. Mies van der Rohe. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1985.Speyer, James A. Mies van der Rohe. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1968.Technology Center Today and Tomorrow. A Building and Expansion Program to Transform Today’s Outgrown Campus of Illinois Institute of Technology into a Modern Center of Technological Education and Research. Chicago: IIT., n.d. Newman, M.W. “Mies van der Rohe.” In Three Centuries of Notable American Architects. ed. Joseph J. Thorndike, New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1981. Zukowsky, John. Mies Reconsidered: His Career, Legacy, and Disciples. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago in association with Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1986. Encyclopedias Lampugnani, Vittorio M., ed. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopedia of 20th Century Architecture. Thames and Hudson, 1989. “Mies van der Rohe.”
    Journals and magazines
    Becker, Lynn.  “Crown Jewel: IIT’s Mies Centerpiece is Restored.”  Metropolis.  vol. 25, no.4 (2005): 116-117.
    Biemiller, Lawrence. “On Campus with 20 Mies Buildings, One Masterpiece.” Chronicle of Higher Education (1986).
    Bluestone, Daniel. “Chicago’s Mecca Flat Blues.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians vol. 57 no. 4 (December 1998): 382-403.
    Domer, Dennis. “Alfred Caldwell.” Catalyst vol. 8 no. 2 (1998): 8.
    Furlong, William Barry. “The Expanding World of IIT.” Chicago (Winter 1967): 56-63. “IIT Dedicates Crown Hall, New Design Building by Mies.”
    Architectural Forum no. 104 (June 1956): 17,21.
    “Gilbert, Douglas.  Á Universal Space with Worldwide Appeal: Mies van der Rohe’s Crown Hall.”  Historic Illinois.  vol. 24, no. 4 (2001): 3-9.
    Hart, Sara.  “The Perils of Restoring ‘Less is More’.”  Architectural Record.  vol. 194, no. 1 (2006): 149.
    “Illinois Tech Re-plans 16 City Blocks.” Architectural Forum no. 85 (September 1946): 102-3.
    Keegan, Edward.  “A Twenty-First-Century Mies.”  Architecture.  vol. 94, no. 9 (2005): 25-28.
    Kuh, Katharine. “Mies Van Der Rohe: Modern Classicist.” SR (23 January 1965): 22-23, 61.
    Lambert, Phyllis. “Mies’s Student Union.” ANY Magazine no. 24 (1999): 52-53.
    “Less than 50 Years Old, IIT’s Crown Hall Among 15 Sites Named National Historic Landmarks.”  Architectural Record.  vol. 189, no. 10 (2001):
    “Mies’ Enormous Room.” Architectural Forum no. 105 (August 1956): 104-111.
    “Mies Hangs a Roof.” Architectural Forum no. 101 (July 1954): 48.
    “Mies van der Rohe.” Architectural Record (August 1956): 134-139.
    Nelson, George. “Buildings to Come.” Architectural Forum no. 76 (February 1942): 14.
    Rowe, Colin. “Neoclassicism & Modern Architecture: Part II.” Oppositions 1: A Journal for Ideas And Criticism in Architecture (September 1973): 14-26.
    Bey, Lee. “Alfred Caldwell, Landscape ‘Genius.’” Chicago Sun Times, 9 July 1998: 60.
    Bey, Lee. “Crown Jewel: Van der Rohe Building May Get Landmark Status.” Chicago Sun Times, 2 October 1996: 4.
    Bey, Lee. “IIT Project Puts New Face on ‘Inner City.’” Chicago Sun Times, 10 February 1998.
    Bey, Lee. “The FBI’s File on Mies van der Rohe.” Chicago Sun-Times, 19 April 1999: 14.
    “Crown Family Pledges $1 Million to Support College of Architecture, Planning, and Design.”
    IIT Alumni News, vol. III no. 4 Spring 1985.
    Heald, H.T. “President Heald Announces Gift From Mrs. J. Ogden Armour at Banquet Honoring Mies Van Der Rohe.” Armour Engineer and Alumnus, vol. 4 no. 2 December 1938.
    Jawny, George. “S.R. Crown Receives A.C.” Technology News, 21 April 1986: 1.
    Kamin, Blair.  “Crown Hall Dazzles in Mies Simplicity.”  Chicago Tribune,  21 Aug 2005. 
    Thomas, Jerry. “Landmark Status Closer for Mies Building at IIT.” Chicago Tribune, 27 April 1997: 8.
    Van Der Rohe, Ludwig Mies. “Mies Van Der Rohe’s Address, Delivered at Banquet Held in his Honor.” Armour Engineer and Alumnus, vol. 4 no. 2 December 1938.
    Reports and studies
    Commission on Chicago Landmarks. “S.R. Crown Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3360 S. State St.,” ed. Timothy Barton, October 1996.
    Fujikawa Johnson & Associates, Inc., et. al., “S.R. Crown Restoration Study – 97,” May 1998.
    Harboe, T. Gunny.  “S.R Crown Hall Historic Structure Report.”  McClier Preservation Group, 2000.
    Illinois Roof Consulting Association, Inc. “Roof Rehabilitation at Crown Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois,” 13 August 1998.
    Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, Inc. in association with Peter Lindsay Schaudt Landscape Architecture, Inc. “IIT in the Landscape: 1999
    Illinois Institute of Technology West Campus Landscape Master Plan. After Mies and Caldwell: A Report to the Mies Committee,” 1999.
    kidmore, Owings, and Merrill. “IIT Campus Master Plan,” n.d.
    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. “Illinois Institute of Technology Crown Hall Renovation Feasibility Study,” February 1974.
    Thomas, Eric.  “S.R. Crown Hall.”  National Register of Historic Places Registration Form.  National Park Service, October 2000.
    “Crown Hall Restoration Awarded Project of the Year.”  Mies Society.  (http://mies.iit.edu/news/">http://mies.iit.edu/news/)
    “Crown Hall.”  City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division.  (http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Landmarks/C/CrownHall.html"
    “Main Campus Master Plan: Crown Hall.”  Illinois Institute of Technology.  (http://masterplan.iit.edu/crown.html)
    “Mies at IIT.”  Illinois Institute of Technology College of Architecture.   (http://www.iit.edu/colleges/arch/)

    Recorder/Date: Name of reporter: Elizabeth Olson Address: Columbia University, 400 Avery Hall, New York, NY 10027 Telephone: 212-854-3080      Fax: 212-864-0410  E-mail: eao2109@columbia.edu Date of report: March 1, 2007
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