A wide selection of books have been published about the architecture in Cuba in the recent decade. The interest in and the publication of books on Cuba is likely only to increase. Most of them have and probably will continue to focus on the earlier periods of Cuban architecture but a few have addressed the remarkable modern hertiage found in Cuba. Below are a few recommendations.
HistoryHavana: Two Faces of the Antillean Metropolis Joseph L. Scarpaci, Roberto Segre and Mario Coyula
(Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002)
This paperback edition with a foreword by Andres Duany is a history of the development of the island of Cuba and the city of Havana. Written by three individuals with very different life experiences, Scarpaci was born in Pittsburgh, Segre in Milan and Coyula in Havana, they all were living in Havana when the book was written. In its combination of nationalities and experiences the book contents reflects the experience of the island: its different faces.
Modern ArchitectureLa Habana: Arquitectura del siglo XX Eduardo Luis Rodriguez (Barcelona, Spain: Art Blume, 1998)
The architecture of Havana in the 20th Century includes many of the same building typologies and styles found in the US ranging from Beaux Arts classicism to Art Deco. This Spanish language book with a foreword by Andres Duany illustrates these developments. The section on modern architecture includes a chapter on the art schools in Havana showing the condition of these remarkable buildings at the end of the 20th Century when they were largely abandoned, overgrown and in disrepair.
The Havana Guide: Modern Architecture 1925-1965
Eduardo Luis Rodriguez:
(New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000)
This guidebook is essential for anyone studying the modern architecture of Havana. While covering the period 1925 to 1965 and presumably includes Art Deco, most of the buildings date from the decades immediately before and after the war. The two postwar decades are particularly fertile and productive in the design of modern architecture in both the private and public sector. Its cut-off date coincides with the rise of the Russian influence on the economy of the island and its building and construction.
Revolution of Forms: Cuba’s Forgotten Art Schools
John A. Loomis:
(New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 2011)
One of the most famous building complexes in Cuba today is the National Art Schools. Started in 1961 on the site of the former country club, a remarkable set of buildings were created by three architects: Ricardo Porro (Dance and Plastic Arts), Roberto Gottardi (Dramatic Arts) and Vittorio Garatti (Music and Ballet). The project was never fully completed and stopped in 1965 and by the end of the 20th Century was largely abandoned and overgrown. At the end of the 90s Loomis with this book brought broad attention to this complex of interconnected organic style structures built with domes and shells reminiscent of Rafael Guastevino’s work in the early part of the 20th Century in Spain and the US.
A great many books about the culture and architecture of Cuba and Havana have been published in the last decade. Only two have been listed here. Many others are undoubtedly forthcoming.
Havana Revisited: An Architectural Heritage
(New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010)
Divided in chapters that address particular geographic areas or interests in Havana, these are discussed by juxtaposing contemporary photographs with early 20th Century photographs. This book seeks to show the architectural evolution of the most important city in Spanish colonial America. While changes have taken place over time, at the same time, the historic postcards show how much, remarkably, remains intact today.
Alejandro G. Alonso, Pedro Contreras and Martino Fagiuoli
(New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2007)
As the title suggests the book shows the richness of the architecture and design in Havana in the two decades before World War II. Architecture, interiors and furnishings and visual arts are included. The buildings and interiors range from public buildings, commercial buildings, cinemas, clubs, hotels to restaurants and private residences both larger multistory apartment buildings as well as individual houses in town and in the suburbs.
Edited by Manuel Herz with Ingrid Schröder. Hans Fockelyn and Julia Jamrozik. Essays by Manuel Herz, Hannah Le Roux, Léo Noyer-Duplaix, Zvi Efrat, Till Förster and Ingrid Schröder. Photography by Iwan Baan and Alexia Webster. African Modernism: Architecture of Independence
(Zurich: Park Books, 2015) 639 pages with color photographs of different size and black plans.
This large sized book is richly illustrated and has beautifully reproduced color photographs, many of which are full or double spread pages. While the title of the book is very broad, it covers only five countries on the African continent: Ghana, Senegal, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya and Zambia. However, it does not make the book or the buildings being showcased any less significant or interesting.
During the late 1950s and 1960s countries in Sub-Saharan Africa gained their independence and, as in many countries in South America, architecture and buildings became the means with which to express a national identity and signify a departure from their colonial past. This impressive and innovative architecture is largely unknown and has not received much attention or recognition.
Aside from the stunning array of buildings one of the surprises are the architects and who they are. In Accra, not entirely surprisingly, we see the work of Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry. However, a surprise is the occasional collaboration with Denys Lasdun. Accra is also where we find the (former) US Embassy designed by Harry Weese, a remarkable building, commissioned as part of that innovative US State Department program that invited many well-known architects (such as Ralph Rapson, Eero Saarinen and Marcel Breuer to name only a few) to design buildings abroad.
In addition to architects commissioned from abroad, frequently from what was referred to as the non-aligned countries, others settled in the respective countries. Henri Chomette is a probably the best case in point. Born in Lyon and educated in France he was one of the most important architects in Senegal and Cöte d’Ivoire. In Nairobi, Kenya, the Kenyatta International Conference designed by Karl Henrik Nøstvik from Norway is another example.
The chapter for each country is accompanied by a general introduction and a timeline that illustrates the political, demographic and economic development of the respective country during the period. In addition there are separate chapters on such subjects, Henri Chomette, the influence of Israel during the period, and the Hôtel d’Ivoire.
African Modernism, in spite of its somewhat confusing title, is an impressive book not only for what it covers but also for its execution. With its stunning photographs that are beautifully reproduced it brings an important part of postcolonial African architecture to life. Hopefully other areas of Africa where modern architecture flourished will get a similar publication someday.
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Victoria M. Young, Saint John’s Abbey Church: Marcel Breuer and the Creation of a Modern Sacred Space
(Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 216 pages, index, bibliography. 17 illustrations 17 in color and numerous photographs, architectural drawings and sketches in black and white.
Marcel Breuer is best known as the architect of many postwar residences and such public, corporate and institutional buildings as HUD in Washington DC, UNESCO in Paris and several office buildings for companies like IBM. Lesser known but equally significant are his designs for buildings for religious organizations like Saint John’s Abbey and Church for the Benedictine order in Collegeville, Minnesota.
The recent book by Victoria Young explains in great narrative detail and illustrated with many photographs and sketches how the project came about. Beginning with the history of the order and its establishment in Minnesota, she takes us through the selection of the architect, which, even for an architect today, remains intriguing. The order invited twelve architects, five from abroad including such prominent church designers as Rudolf Schwarz, and seven from the US. Of the seven Pietro Belluschi and Eero Saarinen declined because of other responsibilities and work in hand leaving Richard Neutra, Walter Gropius, Barry Byrne, Joseph D. Murphy and Marcel Breuer. After site visits and interviews Marcel Breuer was selected.
The design process and its stages are also described in great detail highlighting the underlying liturgical concepts and resulting evolution of the design. It reflected the spirit of the liturgical renewal taking place after the war, which culminated, some years after the abbey church is finished, in the changes spurred by Vatican II. In addition liturgical art is an integral part of the design and is incorporated in the finished building.
Saint John’s Abbey Church: Marcel Breuer and the Creation of a Modern Sacred Space by Victoria Young is an important and welcomed contribution to the literature about the oeuvre of Marcel Breuer and particularly his religious projects. It also gives an insight in the discussions about meaning, art and liturgy taking place mid-century that influenced the design of so many of the other churches across America regardless of denomination.
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Jari Jetsonen and Sirkkaliisa Jetsonen, Saarinen Houses
New York, NY (Princeton Architectural Press, 2014) , 244 pp, 280 color and 50 black and white illustrations.
Father Eliel and son Eero Saarinen are both well known for their respective architectural achievements and the many buildings of their hands that have become icons of architectural history. However, the large majority of those are institutional or commercial buildings. Lesser known is their residential work, for Eliel in both his homeland Finland and in the US and for Eero in the US. The book Saarinen Houses brings these houses, a total of seventeen, together in one volume.
Aside from a short general introduction the book is composed of separate chapters that are case studies for each of the seventeen houses, of which the majority, twelve in fact, are in Finland, and five in the US. Of these houses only the US ones involve Eero working with his father for three of them and finally the last two designed by Eero alone after the death of his father in 1950. Each of the case studies consists of an introduction combined with drawings and black and white photographs that provide the historical context. However, the largest part of each case study is the beautiful color photography of not just the exterior but also of the interior and its detailing.
The Finnish houses are clearly of the hand of Eliel and are in that crafted tradition, the traces of which we continue to admire in later Scandinavian modernism. The first chapter sums it up with the title: “The Home as a Work of Art”. In the American work the participation of Eero slowly emerges and becomes gradually more apparent with its more modernist stylistic vocabulary, first in the two houses still working with his father and finally two houses, after his father’s death, entirely his own.
The book represents a fascinating architectural and design journey from Finland to America and from 19th Century Arts and Crafts to modernism starting at Elliel’s Villa Wuorio of 1898 to 1901 in Helsinki and ending with Eero’s Miller House of 1953 to 1957 in Columbus, Indiana. It is also about the lesser known story of a design family and the involvement in some of the projects of other members of the family like Eliel’s wife Loja, Eero’s sister Pipsan and her husband J. Robert Swanson.
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Thomas C. Jester, editor. Twentieth –Century Building Materials: History and Conservation
(Los Angeles, CA: Getty Conservation Institute 2014), 320 pages, 27 color illustrations and numerous drawings, diagrams and photographs in black and white.
Twentieth –Century Building Materials was first published in 1995 under the same title by McGrawHill in cooperation with Technical Preservation Services, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. This second edition with a new preface by the editor, Thomas Jester, and a new cover is otherwise a reprint of the original publication.That does not make the book less important today but highlights how in many ways the book, its editor and contributors were ahead of their time. In the last two decades the interest in preserving modern architecture has grown exponentially but this book still very much retains its relevancy.
After an introduction addressing the changing of building practices and processes in the modern era related to standardization and experimentation, the book is divided in different sections according to material. Metals, glass, masonry and concrete are the most obvious modern and modernist materials but they are complemented with chapters on various sheet and sheathing materials and roofing. Each material section follows the same general format, a description of the material composition, make up and typical usages, a discussion of the deterioration processes encountered and an outline of conservation methods. Each material section is the work of a different author, a specialist on the particular subject. Extensive references are made not only to the material as defined by its composition but also to the various trade names under which it was available. In addition each section extensively annotated and is accompanied at the back of the book with a bibliography
Twentieth –Century Building Materials has been out of print and in great demand for a long time. The editor and the Getty Conservation Institute are to be commended for bringing this important book back into print.
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(New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2013). 408 pages, numerous color and black and white photographs.
Formica Forever is the publication by the Formica Company in celebration of its hundredth anniversary in 2013. The foreword by Mark Adamson, former CEO of the Formica Group and current CEO of the parent company Fletcher Building, a preface by Abbott Miller and essays by Alexandra Lange, Phil Patton and Peter York put Formica in a historical and contemporary context. In addition a chronology of its evolution and a survey of colors and patterns of the last century present an interesting picture of a much used, much appreciated and culturally and visually important material.
What started out as a material used for electrical insulation in the very beginning became a material that inspired designers. With the rise of industrial design as a distinct discipline in the 1930s greater attention was being paid to materials and their use in general. However, the immediate postwar era saw the major expansion of the use of plastic laminates not just for kitchens or cabinets but for finishes for whole houses as seen in the Formica House in the 1964 World’s Fair or in the 1959 house of Ralph Wilson Sr., the founder of another, still existing, laminate company named WilsonArt, in Temple, Texas.
The design of the Formica Forever book recalls the laminate chip on its front cover but it also inspires the overall design of the book. Colors and period illustrations in the second half of the book complete the historical narrative of the book. The final pages reflect the global nature of the Formica Group by translating the text into four additional languages.
Formica Forever and an earlier publication about the material titled Formica & Design: From the Counter Top to High Art, edited by Susan Grant Lewin, let us appreciate the importance of plastic laminates in post-WW II life.
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Michael Sheridan, The Modern House in Denmark
(Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2014). 335 pages, numerous color and black and white photographs, plans and diagrams.
The postwar Scandinavian and particularly the Danish house formed the inspiration for much of residential design not just in Europe but also in the US. Michael Sheridan, who has done an earlier book on Scandinavian design titled: Room 606: The SAS House and the Work of Arne Jacobsen, has continued his exploration of Danish architecture and design with this recent publication. The houses by prominent Danish architects are all dating from the decade 1950-1960.
While the majority of the book is dedicated to some 14 case studies, the first sixty or so pages is an introduction that sketches the developments that lead up to the postwar decades. The introduction not only outlines what is happening in Denmark or Scandinavia but places these in the larger, mostly European, context. While a section of the introduction is titled ‘Machines for Living’ what is probably the most remarkable is his distinction of what he calls ‘Danish functionalism.' The almost ideological design of Farnsworth or Le Corbusier’s L’Esprit Nouveau house, both mentioned and illustrated, stand in stark contrast to the more humane designs of the Danish and Scandinavian modernists.
This extends not only to the plan and its relation to the site but also includes the use of materials of steel, glass and concrete versus textured brick and wood. The individual case studies are beautifully presented with extensive full page color photographs that demonstrates the simplicity and the relative complexity of the architecture. Each case study is accompanied by a scaled plan of the house and site as well as elevations and sections in a few instances. The plans have indications of the furniture placement is a light blue color, which allows for reading the plan clearly but without losing how the individual rooms were furnished and used. The accompanying text describes both the house and places the building in the larger context of the architect’s oeuvre and the period.
All photographs, not entirely surprisingly, are taken in the summer with full foliage, while the interior spaces are devoid of any personal clutter they express comfort and clarity. With its plans and photographs alone this book is a good reminder of how the architecture of these postwar Danish architects inspired directly and indirectly postwar residential architecture in Europe and the United States. If anything they stand in stark contrast to the McMansions of our time with their quality of spatial development, use of materials and, maybe, their relative humility. This book is worth looking at as a historical document, an architectural inspiration and a reminder of what American architects of that period working in our suburbs were looking at.
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Timothy M. Rohan, The Architecture of Paul Rudolph
(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), 300 pages, 40 color and 185 black and white illustrations.
The work of few architects has generated as much discussion and controversy during their life as after their death. The buildings of Paul Rudolph are in that category. He achieved great acclaim in his lifetime and designed a large and diverse body of work that has now finally been the subject of a major and well deserved biography. Rohan’s superb book is a welcome addition to the history of modern architects and to the understanding of the work of someone, who would now be considered to be one of the period’s ‘starchitects’. He chronicles Rudolph’s early work and career including his houses in Sarasota, FLA, his rise to fame as the chair of Yale’s architecture school – and its building among others – and the fading of that acclaim in subsequent years when postmodernism became the architectural language of the land. Rohan in his discussion of Rudolph’s A & A Building at Yale sees the fire in the building in 1968 – a tumultuous year on many college campuses in both the US and Europe – as the metaphorical turning point of his career. Rudolph’s move to New York and the opening of the office there signaled a new period, which was less prominent but still incredibly productive given the small size of his office in the first place. The book reminds us of his work but also of Rudolph’s evocative drawings and renderings showing the buildings in all their multi-level complexity.
By placing Rudolph’s buildings in the total context of his oeuvre one can not be but astonished by the scope and complexity of that work. Ranging from the early residential commissions to the major buildings in the US and the subsequent work in the Far East as well as the later, much larger, residences they all show a vitality and creativity reflected in his many exuberant drawings.
In more recent times his work has fared less well. Often dubbed ‘brutalist’ – not always correctly – because of his use of concrete, buildings are seen in a negative light. His thoughtful and creative development of plan and form and his careful detailing of concrete – both visually and physically – is not fully appreciated. Buildings like the Micheels House in Westport, Chorley School in Middletown or Riverview High School in Sarasota have been demolished and others like the Orange County Government Center remain under threat. Others like the Cannon Building at Emory University or Yale’s A & A Building, which was carefully restored under Robert Stern’s tutelage, are in full and appreciated use.
His work remains constantly under threat. A recent article in the New York Times when discussing Rudolph’s renovated house on Beekman Place in New York, which is back on the market, noted how an adjacent house was priced at 54% more per square foot. The article continues: “To think of such a modernist masterpiece as little more than raw space is unconscionable yet unsurprising, considering the devastation Mr. Rudolph’s many misunderstood buildings have faced, from his numerous works in Sarasota, Fla., to his Orange County government center in Goshen, N.Y. At least the exterior, perhaps the only aspect most New Yorkers will see, is safe, having been made a city landmark in 2010.”1
Recognition and appreciation of Paul Rudolph’s work is the beginning and most effective tool for saving his buildings. While Rohan in his excellent book sets out to add to the body of architectural history literature, he has contributed directly and indirectly to any upcoming advocacy efforts.
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1Matt A. V. Chaban “In Era of Iconoclasts, Imagination Took Wing on Beekman Place”, The New York Times, September 8, 2014.
Zeuler R. M. de A. Lima, Lino Bo Bardi (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013). Foreword by Barry Bergdoll. 239 pages with color and black and white illustrations, notes and index.
As the author acknowledges in the introduction, the book is a continuum of study and his work in the form of smaller articles and presentations over the span of more than a decade. The current book focuses on the totality of Bo Bardi’s oeuvre and her contribution to and influence on modern art and architecture in Brazil. Her impact, however, was broader and affected the approaches and attitudes towards the preservation and conservation of architecture through design as reflected in her own work. In 2004 Zeuler Lima, the author of the current monograph, presented a paper at the VIIIth International Docomomo Conference on Lina Bo Bardi titled “Preservation as Confrontation in the Work of Lina Bo Bardi”1continuing what had by then almost become a tradition at every Docomomo International conference, a presentation about Bardi’s work by a Brazilian scholar.
The publication of this book on Lina Bo Bardi, the person and her oeuvre, is also part of a larger context: the emergence of a recognition of the important contribution made by women as designers not just as partners but as significant practitioners in their own right. The gradual rediscovery and recognition of Bo Bardi’s work is an example of a trend seen taking place for other women designers. The recent award of the American Institute of Architect’s Gold Medal to Julia Morgan is a case in point. The publication of this comprehensive study of her work is in many ways a culmination of a similar development. In his foreword Bergdoll suggests that she “has become something of a posthumous Starchitect…”.
Her work is not only interesting architecturally but also from a preservation point of view. In many ways it reflects the notion of adaptive use as it emerges in the 1960s and 1970s and the ‘frankly modern’ approach to it. In that sense she is modern and a modernist in her design work for new buildings and her use of old buildings and interpretation of historic architecture. Her renovation of the Teatro Castro Alves as an art museum in Salvador as early as 1960 is an example of creative intervention in a historic building. Later the conversion of the old steel barrel factory in Sao Paolo into a social and cultural center for the SESC between 1977 and 1986 is an example of how old buildings can be reused and new bold additions can be made.
In preservation women have always played a very important role, which has been acknowledged from the very beginning. In the design professions that recognition is only emerging in the last two decades with women occupying more and more highly visible positions in the design, professional and academic communities. This comprehensive publication about Lino Bo Bardi by Zeuler is an important contribution in bringing attention to an early women designer and architect, her work and her on-going contribution to the dialogue surrounding the discipline both here and in Brazil.
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1Proceedings VIIIth International Docomomo Conference (New York, NY: Docomomo US, 2008), Theodore Prudon and Hélène Lipstadt (Editors), 305-313.
Kevin Bone (ed.), Lessons from Modernism: Environmental Design Strategies in Architecture 1925-1970 (New York, NY: Monacelli Press, 2014), 223 pages, numerous illustrations, bibliography and index.
Lessons from Modernism, which was edited by Kevin Bone is the work of many and started as a student seminar at Cooper Union in New York City. The book itself is an outcome of an earlier exhibition with a similar title held in the beginning of 2013 at Cooper Union. The exhibit was organized under the auspices of the Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture and the Cooper Union Institute for Sustainable Design, of which Kevin Bone is the director. The book has a series of introductory essays with the majority of the pages taken up by the case studies.
In current popular opinion modernism and modern architecture are seen as fundamentally unsustainable. Unfortunately that perception – as this book unequivocally demonstrates – is erroneous and based on misinformation. To the contrary it could be argued that architectural design of that period was environmentally much more aware than many architects or architectural students today. Two important factors are often overlooked in today’s discussion. First, many of the buildings – particularly houses – were conceived when air conditioning was not yet prevalent and the design of the building had to take advantage of every available opportunity in design, orientation or material. Where energy was available, it was cheap eliminating any urgency to conserve. Secondly, especially pre-war, access to and availability of light and air (and more specifically sunshine) was considered an issue of public health both in urban planning and architectural design.
The individual projects illustrated in the book reflect the history of modern architecture of the period not just in the US but across the world. The roster includes architects like Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Amancio Williams, Paul Rudolph, Arne Jacobsen, Ricardo Porro and Lino Bo Bardi to name only a few. Each and every one of the buildings is presented not just with a narrative and some photographs of the building originally but also with plans, sections, diagrams and digital reconstructions that all support the environmental logic of each design. Most important and interesting are the diagrams that show the plans as well as sections with their respective solar paths, the direction of the prevailing wind and cross ventilation.
The individual project sheets bring to mind how important the subject of environmental design was before and after WWII. Two examples may serve to prove that point. The Open Air School in Amsterdam of 1930 by Jan Duiker and Bernard Bijvoet (who was to join Pierre Chareau in Paris later that decade), acknowledges the role heliotherapy and fresh air played in the design. This continued to influence, for instance, school design in the postwar as represented in the example of the Munkegaard School in Copenhagen by Arne Jacobsen (the book only shows the original plan for Munkegaard and does not include the changes and additions – mostly underground – made in the recent decade).The other example to illustrate that interest is the so-called House Beautiful Climate Control Project that James Marston Fitch directed when architectural editor at the magazine House Beautiful. Many of the diagrams shown in Lessons from Modernism are more sophisticated examples of what was shown in the magazine in the 1950s when addressing the design of buildings in Florida or Louisiana. Finally it is good to recall the contribution of Victor Olgyay and his Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism of 1963. These are all examples of the intense interest in the subject of environmental design even before the energy crisis of the early 1970s.
The book, which includes a series of essays addressing different aspects of the modernism and sustainability issue by Kevin Bone, Carl Stein, Daniel A. Barber, Alan Berman and Michael Ben-Eli, is an important publication. It not only re-iterates the importance of sustainability and an environmental sensibility as an integral part of architectural practice but also that, contrary to generally accepted public opinion, we can learn a great deal of Modernism.
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